Altruism, Anticipation, and Gender
Existing studies connect overall wellbeing with both payoffs and related anticipation, but it is not explored whether altruistic behavior as well as anticipation about the same may differ across gender and across income levels. We study altruistic behavior and the corresponding anticipation under a pure income effect with a focus on gender. In a dictator game we vary the common show-up fee of both the dictator and the recipient in each of the between-subject treatments, keep the amount to be shared the same, and incentivize recipients to anticipate the amount given. Overall, female dictators give more than their male counterparts but this is driven specifically by high show-up fees. Male recipients, on average and across all show-up fees, anticipate more than the amount female recipients anticipate. They also anticipate higher amounts than what males give as dictators; females do not show such significant pattern. The results reiterate context-driven behavior and lower payoff anticipation in females, and overconfidence in males.
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