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An ex-post view of inequality of opportunity in France and its regions

  • Jean-François Carpantier


    (Universite Catholique de Louvain)

  • Christelle Sapata


    (Facultés Universitaires de Saint Louis)

This paper proposes an ex-post measure of inequality of opportunity in France and its regions by assessing the inequality between individuals exerting the same effort. To this end, we define a fair income that fulfils ex-post equality of opportunity requirements. Unfairness is measured by an unfair Gini based on the distance between the actual income and the fair income. Our findings reveal that the measures of ex-post inequality of opportunity largely vary across regions, and that this is due to di_erences in reward schemes and in the impact of the non responsibility factors of income. We find that most regions have actual incomes closer to fair incomes than to average income, excepted Ile de France where the actual income looks poorly related to effort variables. Finally, we find that income inequality and inequality of opportunity are positively correlated among regions.

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Paper provided by Department of Applied Economics at Universitat Autonoma of Barcelona in its series Working Papers with number wpdea1211.

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Length: 37 pages
Date of creation: Dec 2012
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:uab:wprdea:wpdea1211
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  1. Bossert, W., 1993. "Redistribution Mechanisms Based on Individual Characteristics," Working Papers 9307, University of Waterloo, Department of Economics.
  2. Florence Jusot & Sandy Tubeuf & Alain Trannoy, 2010. "Effort or Circumstances: Does the Correlation Matter for Inequality of Opportunity in Health?," Working Papers DT33, IRDES institut for research and information in health economics, revised Jul 2010.
  3. Roemer, John E. & Aaberge, Rolf & Colombino, Ugo & Fritzell, Johan & Jenkins, Stephen P. & Lefranc, Arnaud & Marx, Ive & Page, Marianne & Pommer, Evert & Ruiz-Castillo, Javier, 2003. "To what extent do fiscal regimes equalize opportunities for income acquisition among citizens?," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 87(3-4), pages 539-565, March.
  4. Asadullah, Niaz & Yalonetzky, Gaston, 2010. "Inequality of Educational Opportunity in India: Changes over Time and across States," IZA Discussion Papers 5146, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  5. Pierre-Philippe Combes & Miren Lafourcade & Jacques-François Thisse & Jean-Claude Toutain, 2008. "The Rise And Fall Of Spatial Inequalities In France: A Long-Run Perspective," PSE Working Papers halshs-00349293, HAL.
  6. Ronald Oaxaca, 1971. "Male-Female Wage Differentials in Urban Labor Markets," Working Papers 396, Princeton University, Department of Economics, Industrial Relations Section..
  7. André Decoster & Peter Haan, 2010. "Empirical Welfare Analysis in Random Utility Models of Labour Supply," Discussion Papers of DIW Berlin 1074, DIW Berlin, German Institute for Economic Research.
  8. Cogneau, Denis & Mesplé-Somps, Sandrine, 2008. "Inequality of Opportunity for Income in Five Countries of Africa," Economics Papers from University Paris Dauphine 123456789/4320, Paris Dauphine University.
  9. Trannoy, Alain & Tubeuf, Sandy & Jusot, Florence & Devaux, Marion, 2010. "Inequality of Opportunities in Health in France: A First Pass," Economics Papers from University Paris Dauphine 123456789/268, Paris Dauphine University.
  10. Vitorocco Peragine, . "Measuring and Implementing Equality of Opportunity for Income," Discussion Papers 98/11, Department of Economics, University of York.
  11. Bourguignon, François & Ferreira, Francisco & Menéndez, Marta, 2007. "Inequality of Opportunity in Brazil," Economics Papers from University Paris Dauphine 123456789/1552, Paris Dauphine University.
  12. Arnaud Lefranc & Nicolas Pistolesi & Alain Trannoy, 2008. "Inequality Of Opportunities Vs. Inequality Of Outcomes: Are Western Societies All Alike?," Review of Income and Wealth, International Association for Research in Income and Wealth, vol. 54(4), pages 513-546, December.
  13. Björklund, Anders & Jäntti, Markus & Roemer, John E., 2011. "Equality of Opportunity and the Distribution of Long-Run Income in Sweden," IZA Discussion Papers 5466, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  14. Daniele Checchi & Vito Peragine & Laura Serlenga, 2010. "Fair and unfair income inequalities in Europe," CHILD Working Papers wp06_10, CHILD - Centre for Household, Income, Labour and Demographic economics - ITALY.
  15. repec:adr:anecst:y:2005:i:78:p:03 is not listed on IDEAS
  16. Ferreira , Francisco H. G. & Gignoux, Jeremie, 2008. "The measurement of inequality of opportunity : theory and an application to Latin America," Policy Research Working Paper Series 4659, The World Bank.
  17. Olivier Godechot, 2011. "Finance and the rise in inequalities in France," Working Papers halshs-00584881, HAL.
  18. Almås, Ingvild & Cappelen, Alexander W. & Lind, Jo Thori & Sørensen, Erik Ø. & Tungodden, Bertil, 2011. "Measuring unfair (in)equality," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 95(7-8), pages 488-499, August.
  19. Nicolas Pistolesi, 2009. "Inequality of opportunity in the land of opportunities, 1968–2001," Journal of Economic Inequality, Springer, vol. 7(4), pages 411-433, December.
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