IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/p/trn/utwpce/1204.html
   My bibliography  Save this paper

The freeze-out bond exchange offer. An experimental approach

Author

Listed:
  • Flavio Bazzana

    ()

  • Luigi Mittone

    ()

  • Luciano Andreozzi

    ()

Abstract

A freeze-out bond exchange offer can occur when a firm wants to replace an exist- ing bond, issued with a covenant, with a new bond that does not have this type of restriction. If the bondholders are not fully coordinated, the shareholders can make the exchange offer unfair to capture wealth from the bondholders. We perform two experiments using the freeze-out game proposed by Oldfield (2004) to isolate (i) the level of information in the exchange offer and (ii) the role of the experience of the bondholders. The results are statistically significant. In the first experiment, they show that experience is a dominant factor with respect to information. Conversely, in the second experiment, the information becomes dominant with respect to expe- rience. The percentages of the choices for the symmetric Nash equilibria are greater in the first experiment. However, in the second experiment, the choices of the asymmetric Nash equilibrium, which is Pareto superior in the game, are greater than in the first experiment. These results have policy implications that may affect exchange offers in the bond market.

Suggested Citation

  • Flavio Bazzana & Luigi Mittone & Luciano Andreozzi, 2012. "The freeze-out bond exchange offer. An experimental approach," CEEL Working Papers 1204, Cognitive and Experimental Economics Laboratory, Department of Economics, University of Trento, Italia.
  • Handle: RePEc:trn:utwpce:1204
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: http://www-ceel.economia.unitn.it/papers/papero12_04.pdf
    Download Restriction: no

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Ulrich Hege & Pierre Mella-Barral, 2005. "Repeated Dilution of Diffusely Held Debt," The Journal of Business, University of Chicago Press, vol. 78(3), pages 737-786, May.
    2. Mann, Steven V. & Powers, Eric A., 2007. "Determinants of bond tender premiums and the percentage tendered," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 31(3), pages 547-566, March.
    3. Paul Mather & Graham Peirson, 2006. "Financial covenants in the markets for public and private debt," Accounting and Finance, Accounting and Finance Association of Australia and New Zealand, vol. 46(2), pages 285-307.
    4. Mike Burkart & Samuel Lee, 2008. "One Share - One Vote: the Theory," Review of Finance, European Finance Association, vol. 12(1), pages 1-49.
    5. Stefano Demichelis & Jorgen W. Weibull, 2008. "Language, Meaning, and Games: A Model of Communication, Coordination, and Evolution," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 98(4), pages 1292-1311, September.
    6. Arturo Bris & Ivo Welch, 2005. "The Optimal Concentration of Creditors," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 60(5), pages 2193-2212, October.
    7. Sweeney, Amy Patricia, 1994. "Debt-covenant violations and managers' accounting responses," Journal of Accounting and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 17(3), pages 281-308, May.
    8. Flavio Bazzana & Marco Palmieri, 2012. "How to increase the efficiency of bond covenants: a proposal for the Italian corporate market," European Journal of Law and Economics, Springer, vol. 34(2), pages 327-346, October.
    9. Yakov Amihud & Kenneth Garbade & Marcel Kahan, 2000. "An Institutional Innovation To Reduce The Agency Costs Of Public Corporate Bonds," Journal of Applied Corporate Finance, Morgan Stanley, vol. 13(1), pages 114-121.
    10. Bates, Thomas W. & Lemmon, Michael L. & Linck, James S., 2006. "Shareholder wealth effects and bid negotiation in freeze-out deals: Are minority shareholders left out in the cold?," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 81(3), pages 681-708, September.
    11. Kim, Yong-Gwan & Sobel, Joel, 1995. "An Evolutionary Approach to Pre-play Communication," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 63(5), pages 1181-1193, September.
    12. Daniels, Kenneth & Ramirez, Gabriel G., 2007. "Debt restructurings, holdouts, and exit consents," Journal of Financial Stability, Elsevier, vol. 3(1), pages 1-17, April.
    13. Y. G. Kim & J. Sobel, 2010. "An Evolutionary Approach to Pre-play Communication," Levine's Working Paper Archive 374, David K. Levine.
    14. de Jong, Abe & Roosenboom, Peter & Schramade, Willem, 2009. "Who benefits from bond tender offers in Europe?," Journal of Multinational Financial Management, Elsevier, vol. 19(5), pages 355-369, December.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
    as


    Cited by:

    1. repec:mul:jdp901:doi:10.12831/73633:y:2013:i:1:p:51-65 is not listed on IDEAS
    2. Flavio Bazzana & Eleonora Broccardo, 2013. "The role of bondholder coordination in freeze-out exchange offers," Journal of Financial Management, Markets and Institutions, Società editrice il Mulino, issue 1, pages 67-84, January.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    freeze-out; covenant; bond; experimental finance;

    JEL classification:

    • G32 - Financial Economics - - Corporate Finance and Governance - - - Financing Policy; Financial Risk and Risk Management; Capital and Ownership Structure; Value of Firms; Goodwill
    • G12 - Financial Economics - - General Financial Markets - - - Asset Pricing; Trading Volume; Bond Interest Rates
    • C91 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Design of Experiments - - - Laboratory, Individual Behavior

    NEP fields

    This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:trn:utwpce:1204. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Marco Tecilla). General contact details of provider: http://edirc.repec.org/data/detreit.html .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.