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Either or Both Competition: A "Two-sided" Theory of Advertising with Overlapping Viewerships

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Abstract

In media markets, consumers spread their attention to several outlets, increasingly so as consumption migrates online. The traditional framework for studying competition among media outlets rules out this behavior by assumption. We propose a new model that allows consumers to choose multiple outlets and use it to study the effect of strategic interaction on advertising levels, and the impact of entry and mergers. We show that novel forces come into play, which reflect the outlets' incentives to control the composition of the customer base in addition to its size. We link consumer preferences and advertising technologies to market outcomes. The model can explain a number of empirical regularities that are difficult to reconcile with existing models.

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  • Attila Ambrus & Emilio Calvano & Markus Reisinger, 2014. "Either or Both Competition: A "Two-sided" Theory of Advertising with Overlapping Viewerships," CSEF Working Papers 378, Centre for Studies in Economics and Finance (CSEF), University of Naples, Italy.
  • Handle: RePEc:sef:csefwp:378
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    Cited by:

    1. Burguet, Roberto & Caminal, Ramon & Ellman, Matthew, 2015. "In Google we trust?," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 39(C), pages 44-55.
    2. Peitz, Martin & Reisinger, Markus, 2014. "The Economics of Internet Media," Working Papers 14-23, University of Mannheim, Department of Economics.
    3. Andre Boik, 2016. "Intermediaries in Two-Sided Markets: An Empirical Analysis of the US Cable Television Industry," American Economic Journal: Microeconomics, American Economic Association, vol. 8(1), pages 256-282, February.
    4. Simon P. Anderson & Øystein Foros & Hans Jarle Kind, 2018. "Competition for Advertisers and for Viewers in Media Markets," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 128(608), pages 34-54, February.
    5. Alexandre Cornière & Greg Taylor, 2014. "Integration and search engine bias," RAND Journal of Economics, RAND Corporation, vol. 45(3), pages 576-597, September.
    6. D'Annunzio, Anna & Russo, Antonio, 2015. "Net Neutrality and internet fragmentation: The role of online advertising," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 43(C), pages 30-47.
    7. Anderson, Simon P. & Jullien, Bruno, 2016. "The advertising-financed business model in two-sided media markets," TSE Working Papers 16-632, Toulouse School of Economics (TSE).
    8. repec:cuf:journl:y:2018:v:19:i:1:dou:ye is not listed on IDEAS
    9. Emilio Calvano & Bruno Jullien, 2012. "Issues in Online Advertising and Competition Policy: A Two-sided Market Perspective," Chapters,in: Recent Advances in the Analysis of Competition Policy and Regulation, chapter 9 Edward Elgar Publishing.
    10. Anderson, Simon P. & Peitz, Martin, 2015. "Media see-saws : winners and losers on media platforms," Working Papers 15-16, University of Mannheim, Department of Economics.
    11. Stühmeier, Torben, 2016. "Media market concentration and pluralism," CAWM Discussion Papers 87, University of Münster, Center of Applied Economic Research Münster (CAWM).
    12. Alexandre de Cornière, 2016. "Search Advertising," American Economic Journal: Microeconomics, American Economic Association, vol. 8(3), pages 156-188, August.
    13. Serena Marianna Drufuca & Maria Rosa Battaggion, 2014. "Quality Competition among Platforms: a Media Market Case," Working Papers (2013-) 1403, University of Bergamo, Department of Management, Economics and Quantitative Methods.
    14. Anna D'Annunzio, 2013. "Vertical Integration in Two-Sided Markets: Exclusive Provision and Program Quality," DIAG Technical Reports 2013-16, Department of Computer, Control and Management Engineering, Universita' degli Studi di Roma "La Sapienza".
    15. Anna D'Annunzio & Antonio Russo, 2017. "Ad Networks, Consumer Tracking, and Privacy," CESifo Working Paper Series 6667, CESifo Group Munich.
    16. Rudiger, Jesper, 2013. "Cross-Checking the Media," MPRA Paper 51786, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    17. Kevin M. Murphy & Ignacio Palacios-Huerta, 2016. "A Theory of Bundling Advertisements in Media Markets," NBER Working Papers 22994, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    18. Antonio Russo & Anna D'Annunzio, 2013. "Network Neutrality, Access to Content and Online Advertising," KOF Working papers 13-344, KOF Swiss Economic Institute, ETH Zurich.
    19. Jullien, Bruno & Pavan, Alessandro, 2013. "Platform Pricing under Dispersed Information," IDEI Working Papers 793, Institut d'Économie Industrielle (IDEI), Toulouse.
    20. Emilio Calvano & Mihele Polo, 2016. "Strategic Differentiation by Business Models: Free-to-Air and Pay-TV," CSEF Working Papers 438, Centre for Studies in Economics and Finance (CSEF), University of Naples, Italy, revised 07 Nov 2017.
    21. Jeitschko, Thomas D. & Tremblay, Mark J., 2014. "Homogeneous platform competition with endogenous homing," DICE Discussion Papers 166, University of Düsseldorf, Düsseldorf Institute for Competition Economics (DICE).
    22. Susan Athey & Emilio Calvano & Joshua Gans, 2013. "The Impact of the Internet on Advertising Markets for News Media," NBER Working Papers 19419, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    23. repec:eee:iepoli:v:43:y:2018:i:c:p:48-60 is not listed on IDEAS
    24. Susan Athey & Emilio Calvano & Joshua S. Gans, 2014. "The Impact of Consumer Multi-homing on Advertising Markets and Media Competition," CSEF Working Papers 379, Centre for Studies in Economics and Finance (CSEF), University of Naples, Italy, revised 27 Apr 2016.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Media Competition; Two-Sided Markets; Multi-Homing; Viewer Composition; Viewer; Preference Correlation;

    JEL classification:

    • D43 - Microeconomics - - Market Structure, Pricing, and Design - - - Oligopoly and Other Forms of Market Imperfection
    • L13 - Industrial Organization - - Market Structure, Firm Strategy, and Market Performance - - - Oligopoly and Other Imperfect Markets
    • L82 - Industrial Organization - - Industry Studies: Services - - - Entertainment; Media
    • M37 - Business Administration and Business Economics; Marketing; Accounting; Personnel Economics - - Marketing and Advertising - - - Advertising

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