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Either or Both Competition: A "Two-Sided" Theory of Advertising with Overlapping Viewerships

Author

Listed:
  • Attila Ambrus
  • Emilio Calvano
  • Markus Reisinger

Abstract

In media markets, consumers spread their attention to several outlets, increasingly so as consumption migrates online. The traditional framework for competition among media outlets rules out this behavior by assumption. We propose a new model that allows consumers to choose multiple outlets and use it to study the effects on advertising levels and the impact of entry and mergers. We identify novel forces which reflect outlets' incentives to control the composition of their customer base. We link consumer preferences and advertising technologies to market outcomes. The model can explain several empirical regularities that are difficult to reconcile with existing models.

Suggested Citation

  • Attila Ambrus & Emilio Calvano & Markus Reisinger, 2016. "Either or Both Competition: A "Two-Sided" Theory of Advertising with Overlapping Viewerships," American Economic Journal: Microeconomics, American Economic Association, vol. 8(3), pages 189-222, August.
  • Handle: RePEc:aea:aejmic:v:8:y:2016:i:3:p:189-222
    Note: DOI: 10.1257/mic.20150019
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

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    Cited by:

    1. Stühmeier, Torben, 2016. "Media market concentration and pluralism," CAWM Discussion Papers 87, University of Münster, Center of Applied Economic Research Münster (CAWM).
    2. Burguet, Roberto & Caminal, Ramon & Ellman, Matthew, 2015. "In Google we trust?," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 39(C), pages 44-55.
    3. Alexandre Cornière & Greg Taylor, 2014. "Integration and search engine bias," RAND Journal of Economics, RAND Corporation, vol. 45(3), pages 576-597, September.
    4. Anderson, Simon P. & Peitz, Martin, 2015. "Media see-saws : winners and losers on media platforms," Working Papers 15-16, University of Mannheim, Department of Economics.
    5. Jullien, Bruno & Pavan, Alessandro, 2013. "Platform Pricing under Dispersed Information," IDEI Working Papers 793, Institut d'Économie Industrielle (IDEI), Toulouse.
    6. Peitz, Martin & Reisinger, Markus, 2014. "The Economics of Internet Media," Working Papers 14-23, University of Mannheim, Department of Economics.
    7. Antonio Russo & Anna D'Annunzio, 2013. "Network Neutrality, Access to Content and Online Advertising," KOF Working papers 13-344, KOF Swiss Economic Institute, ETH Zurich.
    8. Alexandre de Cornière, 2016. "Search Advertising," American Economic Journal: Microeconomics, American Economic Association, vol. 8(3), pages 156-188, August.
    9. Emilio Calvano & Mihele Polo, 2016. "Strategic Differentiation by Business Models: Free-to-Air and Pay-TV," CSEF Working Papers 438, Centre for Studies in Economics and Finance (CSEF), University of Naples, Italy, revised 07 Nov 2017.
    10. Emilio Calvano & Bruno Jullien, 2012. "Issues in Online Advertising and Competition Policy: A Two-sided Market Perspective," Chapters,in: Recent Advances in the Analysis of Competition Policy and Regulation, chapter 9 Edward Elgar Publishing.
    11. Serena Marianna Drufuca & Maria Rosa Battaggion, 2014. "Quality Competition among Platforms: a Media Market Case," Working Papers (2013-) 1403, University of Bergamo, Department of Management, Economics and Quantitative Methods.
    12. Andre Boik, 2016. "Intermediaries in Two-Sided Markets: An Empirical Analysis of the US Cable Television Industry," American Economic Journal: Microeconomics, American Economic Association, vol. 8(1), pages 256-282, February.
    13. Jeitschko, Thomas D. & Tremblay, Mark J., 2014. "Homogeneous platform competition with endogenous homing," DICE Discussion Papers 166, University of Düsseldorf, Düsseldorf Institute for Competition Economics (DICE).
    14. Anderson, Simon P & Foros, Øystein & Kind, Hans Jarle, 2015. "Competition for advertisers and for viewers in media markets," CEPR Discussion Papers 10608, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    15. Anna D'Annunzio, 2013. "Vertical Integration in Two-Sided Markets: Exclusive Provision and Program Quality," DIAG Technical Reports 2013-16, Department of Computer, Control and Management Engineering, Universita' degli Studi di Roma "La Sapienza".
    16. D'Annunzio, Anna & Russo, Antonio, 2015. "Net Neutrality and internet fragmentation: The role of online advertising," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 43(C), pages 30-47.
    17. Anna D'Annunzio & Antonio Russo, 2017. "Ad Networks, Consumer Tracking, and Privacy," CESifo Working Paper Series 6667, CESifo Group Munich.
    18. Rudiger, Jesper, 2013. "Cross-Checking the Media," MPRA Paper 51786, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    19. Susan Athey & Emilio Calvano & Joshua Gans, 2013. "The Impact of the Internet on Advertising Markets for News Media," NBER Working Papers 19419, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    20. Susan Athey & Emilio Calvano & Joshua S. Gans, 2014. "The Impact of Consumer Multi-homing on Advertising Markets and Media Competition," CSEF Working Papers 379, Centre for Studies in Economics and Finance (CSEF), University of Naples, Italy, revised 27 Apr 2016.
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    More about this item

    JEL classification:

    • D42 - Microeconomics - - Market Structure, Pricing, and Design - - - Monopoly
    • D43 - Microeconomics - - Market Structure, Pricing, and Design - - - Oligopoly and Other Forms of Market Imperfection
    • L12 - Industrial Organization - - Market Structure, Firm Strategy, and Market Performance - - - Monopoly; Monopolization Strategies
    • L13 - Industrial Organization - - Market Structure, Firm Strategy, and Market Performance - - - Oligopoly and Other Imperfect Markets
    • L82 - Industrial Organization - - Industry Studies: Services - - - Entertainment; Media
    • L86 - Industrial Organization - - Industry Studies: Services - - - Information and Internet Services; Computer Software
    • M37 - Business Administration and Business Economics; Marketing; Accounting; Personnel Economics - - Marketing and Advertising - - - Advertising

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