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Biodiversity, Ecosystem Services, and Land Use: Comparing Three Federal Policies

  • Walls, Margaret


    (Resources for the Future)

  • Riddle, Anne


    (Resources for the Future)

Natural ecosystems provide a variety of benefits to society, known as “ecosystem services.” Fundamental to the provision of ecosystem services in a region is its underlying biodiversity, i.e., the wealth and variety of plants, animals, and microorganisms. Because the benefits from ecosystem services and biodiversity are not valued in market exchanges, private landowners tend to undersupply them. We compare and contrast the different approaches taken to providing ecosystem services on private land in three federal programs—the Endangered Species Act, the Conservation Reserve Program, and Section 404 of the Clean Water Act. The Endangered Species Act (ESA) places restrictions on land uses for private landowners if endangered species, or critical habitats for endangered species, are found on their properties. The Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) compensates farmers for removing valuable property from agricultural production to preserve wildlife habitat, water and soil quality, and other ecosystem values. Section 404 of the Clean Water Act prohibits destruction or damage to wetlands, unless individuals buy credits for equivalent wetlands created by third parties—so-called “wetlands mitigation banks.” These three policies run the gamut from a command-and-control regulatory approach to a “payment for ecosystem services” option. We summarize the economics literature on key findings from these programs.

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Paper provided by Resources For the Future in its series Discussion Papers with number dp-12-08.

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Date of creation: 21 Feb 2012
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Handle: RePEc:rff:dpaper:dp-12-08
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  1. Lewis, David J. & Plantinga, Andrew J. & Nelson, Erik & Polasky, Stephen, 2009. "The Efficiency of Voluntary Incentive Policies for Preventing Biodiversity Loss," Staff Paper Series 533, University of Wisconsin, Agricultural and Applied Economics.
  2. Thomas Eichner & Rüdiger Pethig, 2004. "Economic land use, ecosystem services and microfounded species dynamics," Volkswirtschaftliche Diskussionsbeiträge 116-04, Universität Siegen, Fakultät Wirtschaftswissenschaften, Wirtschaftsinformatik und Wirtschaftsrecht.
  3. Wanhong Yang & Madhu Khanna & Richard Farnsworth, 2005. "Effectiveness of Conservation Programs in Illinois and Gains from Targeting," American Journal of Agricultural Economics, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association, vol. 87(5), pages 1248-1255.
  4. Scarlett, Lynn & Boyd, James W., 2011. "Ecosystem Services: Quantification, Policy Applications, and Current Federal Capabilities," Discussion Papers dp-11-13, Resources For the Future.
  5. Finnoff, David & Tschirhart, John, 2008. "Linking dynamic economic and ecological general equilibrium models," Resource and Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 30(2), pages 91-114, May.
  6. John A. List & Michael Margolis & Daniel E. Osgood, 2006. "Is the Endangered Species Act Endangering Species?," NBER Working Papers 12777, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  7. Ruben N. Lubowski & Michael J. Roberts, 2005. "How Cost-Effective Are Land Retirement Auctions? Estimating the Difference between Payments and Willingness to Accept in the Conservation Reserve Program," American Journal of Agricultural Economics, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association, vol. 87(5), pages 1239-1247.
  8. Robert Innes & Stephen Polasky & John Tschirhart, 1998. "Takings, Compensation and Endangered Species Protection on Private Lands," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 12(3), pages 35-52, Summer.
  9. Michael J. Roberts & Ruben N. Lubowski, 2007. "Enduring Impacts of Land Retirement Policies: Evidence from the Conservation Reserve Program," Land Economics, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 83(4), pages 516-538.
  10. Woodward, Richard T. & Wui, Yong-Suhk, 2001. "The economic value of wetland services: a meta-analysis," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 37(2), pages 257-270, May.
  11. Lueck, Dean & Michael, Jeffrey A, 2003. "Preemptive Habitat Destruction under the Endangered Species Act," Journal of Law and Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 46(1), pages 27-60, April.
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