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Policy Regimes, Policy Shifts, and U.S. Business Cycles

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  • Woong Yong Park

    (University of Hong Kong)

  • Jae Won Lee

    (Rutgers University)

  • Saroj Bhattarai

    (Penn State University)

Abstract

Using an estimated DSGE model that features monetary and fiscal policy interactions and allows for equilibrium indeterminacy, we find that a passive monetary and passive fiscal policy regime prevailed in the pre-Volcker period while an active monetary and passive fiscal policy regime prevailed post-Volcker. Since both monetary and fiscal policies were passive pre-Volcker, there was equilibrium indeterminacy that gave rise to self-fulfilling beliefs and resulted in substantially different transmission mechanisms of policy as compared to conventional models: unanticipated increases in interest rates increased inflation and output while unanticipated increases in lump-sum taxes decreased inflation and output. Unanticipated shifts in monetary and fiscal policies however, played no substantial role in explaining the variation of inflation and output at any horizon in either of the time periods. Pre-Volcker, in sharp contrast to post-Volcker, we find that a time-varying inflation target does not explain low-frequency movements in inflation. A combination of shocks account for the dynamics of output, inflation, and government debt, with the relative importance of a particular shock quite different in the two time-periods due to changes in the systematic responses of policy. Finally, in a counterfactual exercise, we show that had the monetary policy regime of the post-Volcker era been in place pre-Volcker, inflation volatility would have been lower by 34% and the rise of inflation in the 1970s would not have occurred.

Suggested Citation

  • Woong Yong Park & Jae Won Lee & Saroj Bhattarai, 2012. "Policy Regimes, Policy Shifts, and U.S. Business Cycles," 2012 Meeting Papers 287, Society for Economic Dynamics.
  • Handle: RePEc:red:sed012:287
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    Cited by:

    1. Francesco Bianchi & Cosmin Ilut, 2017. "Monetary/Fiscal Policy Mix and Agent's Beliefs," Review of Economic Dynamics, Elsevier for the Society for Economic Dynamics, vol. 26, pages 113-139, October.
    2. Yunjong Eo & Denny Lie, 2017. "The role of inflation target adjustment in stabilization policy," CAMA Working Papers 2017-27, Centre for Applied Macroeconomic Analysis, Crawford School of Public Policy, The Australian National University.
    3. Bhattarai, Saroj & Lee, Jae Won & Park, Woong Yong, 2014. "Price indexation, habit formation, and the Generalized Taylor Principle," Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, Elsevier, vol. 48(C), pages 218-225.
    4. de Haan, J. & Eijffinger, Sylvester, 2016. "The Politics of Central Bank Independence," Discussion Paper 2016-047, Tilburg University, Center for Economic Research.
    5. Qazi Haque, 2017. "Monetary Policy, Target Inflation and the Great Moderation: An Empirical Investigation," School of Economics Working Papers 2017-10, University of Adelaide, School of Economics.
    6. Hirose, Yasuo & Kurozumi, Takushi & Van Zandweghe, Willem, 2015. "Monetary policy, trend inflation, and the Great Moderation: an alternative interpretation: comment based on system estimation," Research Working Paper RWP 15-17, Federal Reserve Bank of Kansas City.
    7. De Graeve, Ferre & Queijo von Heideken, Virginia, 2015. "Identifying fiscal inflation," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 80(C), pages 83-93.
    8. Saroj Bhattarai & Jae Won Lee & Woong Yong Park, 2012. "Monetary-Fiscal Policy Interactions and Indeterminacy in Postwar US Data," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 102(3), pages 173-178, May.
    9. Bhattarai, Saroj & Lee, Jae Won & Park, Woong Yong, 2014. "Inflation dynamics: The role of public debt and policy regimes," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 67(C), pages 93-108.
    10. Gliksberg, Baruch, "undated". "Dynamic Scoring and Monetary Policy," Working Papers WP2014/1, University of Haifa, Department of Economics.
    11. Leeper, Eric M. & Li, Bing, 2017. "Surplus–debt regressions," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 151(C), pages 10-15.
    12. Yasuo Hirose, 2014. "An Estimated DSGE Model with a Deflation Steady State," CAMA Working Papers 2014-52, Centre for Applied Macroeconomic Analysis, Crawford School of Public Policy, The Australian National University.
    13. Farmer, Roger E.A. & Khramov, Vadim & Nicolò, Giovanni, 2015. "Solving and estimating indeterminate DSGE models," Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, Elsevier, vol. 54(C), pages 17-36.
    14. Anthony M. Diercks & William Waller, 2017. "Taxes and the Fed : Theory and Evidence from Equities," Finance and Economics Discussion Series 2017-104, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
    15. Valerija Botric & Iva Tomic, 2016. "Self-employment of the young and the old: exploring effects of the crisis in Croatia," Working Papers 1603, The Institute of Economics, Zagreb.
    16. Hirose, Yasuo & Kurozumi, Takushi & Van Zandweghe, Willem, 2017. "Monetary Policy and Macroeconomic Stability Revisited," Research Working Paper RWP 17-1, Federal Reserve Bank of Kansas City.

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