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Opportunity entrepreneurs - potential drivers of non-farm growth in rural Vietnam?

Author

Listed:
  • Juergen Bruenjes

    () (Institute of Economic and Cultural Geography, Leibniz University Hanover)

  • Javier Revilla Diez

    (Institute of Economic and Cultural Geography, Leibniz University Hanover)

Abstract

In this paper we apply the concept of necessity and opportunity entrepreneurship to rural Vietnam. The aim is to evaluate whether opportunity entrepreneurs in rural areas in developing countries have a greater potential to stimulate endogenous non-farm growth than necessity entrepreneurs. The results show that opportunity entrepreneurs are relatively frequent. They have an agricultural background less often and are better educated and skilled. In addition, they are more successful in terms of profits, even after controlling for general business and locational characteristics. However, even rural opportunity entrepreneurs are often not oriented towards employment growth and thus have a limited capacity to generate non†farm employment for other households. It becomes clear that although the necessity/opportunity concept has so far been primarily applied to developed countries, distinguishing opportunity and necessity entrepreneurship is very suitable in a rural developing context if some contextual specifics of the rural environment are taken into account.

Suggested Citation

  • Juergen Bruenjes & Javier Revilla Diez, 2012. "Opportunity entrepreneurs - potential drivers of non-farm growth in rural Vietnam?," Working Papers on Innovation and Space 2012-01, Philipps University Marburg, Department of Geography.
  • Handle: RePEc:pum:wpaper:2012-01
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Joern H. Block & Marcus Wagner, 2010. "Necessity and Opportunity Entrepreneurs in Germany: Characteristics and Earning s Differentials," Schmalenbach Business Review (sbr), LMU Munich School of Management, vol. 62(2), pages 154-174, April.
    2. Günther, Isabel & Launov, Andrey, 2012. "Informal employment in developing countries," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 97(1), pages 88-98.
    3. Thomas Gries & Wim Naudé, 2010. "Entrepreneurship and structural economic transformation," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 34(1), pages 13-29, January.
    4. Michael Grimm & Jens Krüger & Jann Lay, 2011. "Barriers To Entry And Returns To Capital In Informal Activities: Evidence From Sub‐Saharan Africa," Review of Income and Wealth, International Association for Research in Income and Wealth, vol. 57, pages 27-53, May.
    5. Uwe Blien, 2011. "The Interaction between Culture and Economy in Vietnam," ERSA conference papers ersa11p342, European Regional Science Association.
    6. Jörn Block & Philipp Sandner, 2009. "Necessity and Opportunity Entrepreneurs and Their Duration in Self-employment: Evidence from German Micro Data," Journal of Industry, Competition and Trade, Springer, vol. 9(2), pages 117-137, June.
    7. Ellis, Frank, 2000. "Rural Livelihoods and Diversity in Developing Countries," OUP Catalogue, Oxford University Press, number 9780198296966.
    8. Giacomin, Olivier & Janssen, Frank & Guyot, Jean-luc & Lohest, Olivier, 2011. "Opportunity and/or necessity entrepreneurship? The impact of the socio-economic characteristics of entrepreneurs," MPRA Paper 29506, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    9. Earle, John S. & Sakova, Zuzana, 2000. "Business start-ups or disguised unemployment? Evidence on the character of self-employment from transition economies," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 7(5), pages 575-601, September.
    10. Alberto Arias & Inaki Pena, 2010. "The effect of entrepreneurs' motivation and the local economic environment on young venture performance," International Journal of Business Environment, Inderscience Enterprises Ltd, vol. 3(1), pages 38-56.
    11. Roy Thurik & Ingrid Verheul & Isabel Grilo & Reena Bhola, 2006. "Explaining engagement levels of opportunity and necessity entrepreneurs," Scales Research Reports H200610, EIM Business and Policy Research.
    12. Heiko Bergmann & Rolf Sternberg, 2007. "The Changing Face of Entrepreneurship in Germany," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 28(2), pages 205-221, March.
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    Cited by:

    1. David B. Audretsch & Dirk Dohse & Annekatrin Niebuhr, 2015. "Regional unemployment structure and new firm formation," Papers in Regional Science, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 94, pages 115-138, November.
    2. repec:kap:sbusec:v:50:y:2018:i:1:d:10.1007_s11187-017-9886-2 is not listed on IDEAS

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Necessity entrepreneurship;  opportunity entrepreneurship;  developing countries; Vietnam;

    JEL classification:

    • L2 - Industrial Organization - - Firm Objectives, Organization, and Behavior
    • O18 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Development - - - Urban, Rural, Regional, and Transportation Analysis; Housing; Infrastructure
    • R23 - Urban, Rural, Regional, Real Estate, and Transportation Economics - - Household Analysis - - - Regional Migration; Regional Labor Markets; Population

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