IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/p/pre/wpaper/201907.html
   My bibliography  Save this paper

Are Uncertainties across the World Convergent?

Author

Listed:
  • Christina Christou

    (School of Economics and Management, Open University of Cyprus, 2252, Latsia, Cyprus)

  • Giray Gozgor

    (Istanbul Medeniyet University, Istanbul, Turkey)

  • Rangan Gupta

    (Department of Economics, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, South Africa)

  • Chi-Keung (Marco) Lau

    (Huddersfield Business School, University of Huddersfield, Huddersfield, HD1 3DH, United Kingdom)

Abstract

We analyse the convergence of a news-based measure of uncertainty across 143 countries (spanning 99 percent of world GDP) over the quarterly period of 1996:01 to 2018:03. We apply a panel data-based unit root test, which controls for both nonlinearity and cross-sectional dependence, to the ratio of the uncertainty of individual countries relative to that of global uncertainty. We find overwhelming evidence of stationarity in 141 of the cross-sectional units, leading to a rejection of the null of a unit root for the entire panel. Our results provide strong evidence of convergence and hence, the spillover of uncertainty spillover across the economies of the world. Given this, policymakers need to be alert all the time to counteract the negative impact on the domestic economy in the wake of uncertainty increases around the world.

Suggested Citation

  • Christina Christou & Giray Gozgor & Rangan Gupta & Chi-Keung (Marco) Lau, 2019. "Are Uncertainties across the World Convergent?," Working Papers 201907, University of Pretoria, Department of Economics.
  • Handle: RePEc:pre:wpaper:201907
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    To our knowledge, this item is not available for download. To find whether it is available, there are three options:
    1. Check below whether another version of this item is available online.
    2. Check on the provider's web page whether it is in fact available.
    3. Perform a search for a similarly titled item that would be available.

    Other versions of this item:

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Giovanni Caggiano & Efrem Castelnuovo & Juan Manuel Figueres, 2020. "Economic Policy Uncertainty Spillovers in Booms and Busts," Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, Department of Economics, University of Oxford, vol. 82(1), pages 125-155, February.
    2. Selma Izadi & M. Kabir Hassan, 2018. "Portfolio and hedging effectiveness of financial assets of the G7 countries," Eurasian Economic Review, Springer;Eurasia Business and Economics Society, vol. 8(2), pages 183-213, August.
    3. Libo Yin & Liyan Han, 2014. "Spillovers of macroeconomic uncertainty among major economies," Applied Economics Letters, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 21(13), pages 938-944, September.
    4. Antonakakis, Nikolaos & Gabauer, David & Gupta, Rangan & Plakandaras, Vasilios, 2018. "Dynamic connectedness of uncertainty across developed economies: A time-varying approach," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 166(C), pages 63-75.
    5. Kaddour Hadri, 2000. "Testing for stationarity in heterogeneous panel data," Econometrics Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 3(2), pages 148-161.
    6. Chuliá, Helena & Gupta, Rangan & Uribe, Jorge M. & Wohar, Mark E., 2017. "Impact of US uncertainties on emerging and mature markets: Evidence from a quantile-vector autoregressive approach," Journal of International Financial Markets, Institutions and Money, Elsevier, vol. 48(C), pages 178-191.
    7. Dickey, David A & Fuller, Wayne A, 1981. "Likelihood Ratio Statistics for Autoregressive Time Series with a Unit Root," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 49(4), pages 1057-1072, June.
    8. M. Hashem Pesaran, 2007. "A simple panel unit root test in the presence of cross-section dependence," Journal of Applied Econometrics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 22(2), pages 265-312.
    9. Rangan Gupta & Giray Gozgor & Huseyin Kaya & Ender Demir, 2019. "Effects of geopolitical risks on trade flows: evidence from the gravity model," Eurasian Economic Review, Springer;Eurasia Business and Economics Society, vol. 9(4), pages 515-530, December.
    10. Mario Cerrato & Christian De Peretti & Chris Stewart, 2013. "Is The Consumption–Income Ratio Stationary? Evidence From Linear And Non-Linear Panel Unit Root Tests For Oecd And Non-Oecd Countries," Manchester School, University of Manchester, vol. 81(1), pages 102-120, January.
    11. Gupta, Rangan & Pierdzioch, Christian & Risse, Marian, 2016. "On international uncertainty links: BART-based empirical evidence for Canada," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 143(C), pages 24-27.
    12. Colombo, Valentina, 2013. "Economic policy uncertainty in the US: Does it matter for the Euro area?," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 121(1), pages 39-42.
    13. Çekin, Semih Emre & Pradhan, Ashis Kumar & Tiwari, Aviral Kumar & Gupta, Rangan, 2020. "Measuring co-dependencies of economic policy uncertainty in Latin American countries using vine copulas," The Quarterly Review of Economics and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 76(C), pages 207-217.
    14. Gupta, Rangan & Ma, Jun & Risse, Marian & Wohar, Mark E., 2018. "Common business cycles and volatilities in US states and MSAs: The role of economic uncertainty," Journal of Macroeconomics, Elsevier, vol. 57(C), pages 317-337.
    15. Klößner, Stefan & Sekkel, Rodrigo, 2014. "International spillovers of policy uncertainty," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 124(3), pages 508-512.
    16. Im, Kyung So & Pesaran, M. Hashem & Shin, Yongcheol, 2003. "Testing for unit roots in heterogeneous panels," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 115(1), pages 53-74, July.
    17. Ben S. Bernanke, 1983. "Irreversibility, Uncertainty, and Cyclical Investment," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 98(1), pages 85-106.
    18. Giray Gozgor & Ender Demir, 2017. "Excess stock returns, oil shocks, and policy uncertainty in the U.S," Economics Bulletin, AccessEcon, vol. 37(2), pages 741-755.
    19. Diebold, Francis X. & Yilmaz, Kamil, 2012. "Better to give than to receive: Predictive directional measurement of volatility spillovers," International Journal of Forecasting, Elsevier, vol. 28(1), pages 57-66.
    20. Vasilios Plakandaras & Rangan Gupta & Mark E. Wohar, 2019. "Persistence of economic uncertainty: a comprehensive analysis," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 51(41), pages 4477-4498, September.
    21. Avinash K. Dixit & Robert S. Pindyck, 1994. "Investment under Uncertainty," Economics Books, Princeton University Press, edition 1, number 5474.
    22. Nikolaos Antonakakis & David Gabauer & Rangan Gupta, 2018. "Greek Economic Policy Uncertainty: Does it Matter for the European Union?," Working Papers 201840, University of Pretoria, Department of Economics.
    23. Udo Broll & Peter Welzel & Kit Pong Wong, 2018. "Ambiguity preferences, risk taking and the banking firm," Eurasian Economic Review, Springer;Eurasia Business and Economics Society, vol. 8(3), pages 343-353, December.
    24. Liow, Kim Hiang & Liao, Wen-Chi & Huang, Yuting, 2018. "Dynamics of international spillovers and interaction: Evidence from financial market stress and economic policy uncertainty," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 68(C), pages 96-116.
    25. Thiem, Christopher, 2018. "Cross-category spillovers of economic policy uncertainty," Ruhr Economic Papers 744, RWI - Leibniz-Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung, Ruhr-University Bochum, TU Dortmund University, University of Duisburg-Essen.
    26. Gabauer, David & Gupta, Rangan, 2018. "On the transmission mechanism of country-specific and international economic uncertainty spillovers: Evidence from a TVP-VAR connectedness decomposition approach," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 171(C), pages 63-71.
    27. Rangan Gupta & Godwin Olasehinde-Williams & Mark E. Wohar, 2018. "The Impact of US Uncertainty Shocks on a Panel of Advanced and Emerging Market Economies: The Role of Exchange Rate, Trade and Financial Channels," Working Papers 201857, University of Pretoria, Department of Economics.
    28. Mr. Francesco Grigoli & Nina Biljanovska & Martina Hengge, 2017. "Fear Thy Neighbor: Spillovers from Economic Policy Uncertainty," IMF Working Papers 2017/240, International Monetary Fund.
    29. Levin, Andrew & Lin, Chien-Fu & James Chu, Chia-Shang, 2002. "Unit root tests in panel data: asymptotic and finite-sample properties," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 108(1), pages 1-24, May.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
    as


    Cited by:

    1. Aviral Kumar Tiwari & Micheal Kofi Boachie & Rangan Gupta, 2021. "Network Analysis of Economic and Financial Uncertainties in Advanced Economies: Evidence from Graph-Theory," Advances in Decision Sciences, Asia University, Taiwan, vol. 25(1), pages 188-215, March.
    2. Mehmet Balcilar & David Gabauer & Rangan Gupta & Christian Pierdzioch, 2021. "Uncertainty and Forecastability of Regional Output Growth in the United Kingdom: Evidence from Machine Learning," Working Papers 202111, University of Pretoria, Department of Economics.
    3. Gupta, Rangan & Lau, Chi-Keung (Marco) & Sheng, Xin, 2020. "Graph theory-based network analysis of regional uncertainties of the US Economy," Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications, Elsevier, vol. 540(C).
    4. Bonga, Wellington Garikai, 2019. "Measuring Macroeconomic Uncertainty in Zimbabwe," MPRA Paper 94759, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    5. Rangan Gupta & Christian Pierdzioch, 2021. "Forecasting the Volatility of Crude Oil: The Role of Uncertainty and Spillovers," Energies, MDPI, vol. 14(14), pages 1-15, July.

    Most related items

    These are the items that most often cite the same works as this one and are cited by the same works as this one.
    1. Rangan Gupta & Chi Keung Marco Lau & Jacobus A. Nel & Xin Sheng, 2020. "Monetary policy uncertainty spillovers in time and frequency domains," Journal of Economic Structures, Springer;Pan-Pacific Association of Input-Output Studies (PAPAIOS), vol. 9(1), pages 1-30, December.
    2. Gabauer, David & Gupta, Rangan, 2020. "Spillovers across macroeconomic, financial and real estate uncertainties: A time-varying approach," Structural Change and Economic Dynamics, Elsevier, vol. 52(C), pages 167-173.
    3. Gabauer, David & Gupta, Rangan, 2018. "On the transmission mechanism of country-specific and international economic uncertainty spillovers: Evidence from a TVP-VAR connectedness decomposition approach," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 171(C), pages 63-71.
    4. Antonakakis, Nikolaos & Gabauer, David & Gupta, Rangan, 2019. "Greek economic policy uncertainty: Does it matter for Europe? Evidence from a dynamic connectedness decomposition approach," Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications, Elsevier, vol. 535(C).
    5. Antonakakis, Nikolaos & Gabauer, David & Gupta, Rangan & Plakandaras, Vasilios, 2018. "Dynamic connectedness of uncertainty across developed economies: A time-varying approach," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 166(C), pages 63-75.
    6. Nikolaos Antonakakis & David Gabauer & Rangan Gupta, 2018. "Greek Economic Policy Uncertainty: Does it Matter for the European Union?," Working Papers 201840, University of Pretoria, Department of Economics.
    7. Gupta, Rangan & Sun, Xiaojin, 2020. "Forecasting economic policy uncertainty of BRIC countries using Bayesian VARs," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 186(C).
    8. Mehmet Balcilar & David Gabauer & Rangan Gupta & Christian Pierdzioch, 2021. "Uncertainty and Forecastability of Regional Output Growth in the United Kingdom: Evidence from Machine Learning," Working Papers 202111, University of Pretoria, Department of Economics.
    9. Śmiech, Sławomir & Papież, Monika & Shahzad, Syed Jawad Hussain, 2020. "Spillover among financial, industrial and consumer uncertainties. The case of EU member states," International Review of Financial Analysis, Elsevier, vol. 70(C).
    10. Nong, Huifu, 2021. "Have cross-category spillovers of economic policy uncertainty changed during the US–China trade war?," Journal of Asian Economics, Elsevier, vol. 74(C).
    11. Śmiech, Sławomir & Papież, Monika, 2018. "Volatility spillovers among uncertainty measures. The case of EU member states," MPRA Paper 90319, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    12. Jiang, Yonghong & Zhu, Zixuan & Tian, Gengyu & Nie, He, 2019. "Determinants of within and cross-country economic policy uncertainty spillovers: Evidence from US and China," Finance Research Letters, Elsevier, vol. 31(C).
    13. Gupta, Rangan & Lau, Chi-Keung (Marco) & Sheng, Xin, 2020. "Graph theory-based network analysis of regional uncertainties of the US Economy," Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications, Elsevier, vol. 540(C).
    14. Christopher Thiem, 2020. "Cross-Category, Trans-Pacific Spillovers of Policy Uncertainty and Financial Market Volatility," Open Economies Review, Springer, vol. 31(2), pages 317-342, April.
    15. Chuliá, Helena & Gupta, Rangan & Uribe, Jorge M. & Wohar, Mark E., 2017. "Impact of US uncertainties on emerging and mature markets: Evidence from a quantile-vector autoregressive approach," Journal of International Financial Markets, Institutions and Money, Elsevier, vol. 48(C), pages 178-191.
    16. Rangan Gupta & Chi Keung Marco Lau & Mark E. Wohar, 2019. "The impact of US uncertainty on the Euro area in good and bad times: evidence from a quantile structural vector autoregressive model," Empirica, Springer;Austrian Institute for Economic Research;Austrian Economic Association, vol. 46(2), pages 353-368, May.
    17. Abakah, Emmanuel Joel Aikins & Caporale, Guglielmo Maria & Gil-Alana, Luis Alberiko, 2021. "Economic policy uncertainty: Persistence and cross-country linkages," Research in International Business and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 58(C).
    18. Afees A. Salisu & Rangan Gupta & Riza Demirer, 2021. "The Financial US Uncertainty Spillover Multiplier: Evidence from a GVAR Model," Working Papers 202145, University of Pretoria, Department of Economics.
    19. Tsangyao Chang & Tsung-Pao Wu & Rangan Gupta, 2015. "Are house prices in South Africa really nonstationary? Evidence from SPSM-based panel KSS test with a Fourier function," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 47(1), pages 32-53, January.
    20. Chow Sheung-Chi & Cunado Juncal & Gupta Rangan & Wong Wing-Keung, 2018. "Causal relationships between economic policy uncertainty and housing market returns in China and India: evidence from linear and nonlinear panel and time series models," Studies in Nonlinear Dynamics & Econometrics, De Gruyter, vol. 22(2), pages 1-15, April.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    uncertainty; economic policy; convergence; nonlinear panel data unit root test;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • O47 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Growth and Aggregate Productivity - - - Empirical Studies of Economic Growth; Aggregate Productivity; Cross-Country Output Convergence
    • D80 - Microeconomics - - Information, Knowledge, and Uncertainty - - - General
    • C21 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Single Equation Models; Single Variables - - - Cross-Sectional Models; Spatial Models; Treatment Effect Models

    NEP fields

    This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:pre:wpaper:201907. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: . General contact details of provider: https://edirc.repec.org/data/decupza.html .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a bibliographic reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: Rangan Gupta (email available below). General contact details of provider: https://edirc.repec.org/data/decupza.html .

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.