IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/p/pra/mprapa/78595.html
   My bibliography  Save this paper

Dependence of Stock Markets with Gold and Bonds under Bullish and Bearish Market States

Author

Listed:
  • Shahzad, Syed Jawad Hussain
  • Raza, Naveed
  • Shahbaz, Muhammad
  • Ali, Azwadi

Abstract

This paper examines the dependence of gold and benchmark bonds with ten stock markets including five larger developed markets (e.g. USA, UK, Japan, Canada and Germany) and five Eurozone peripheral GIPSI countries (Greece, Ireland, Portuguese, Spain and Ireland) stock markets. We use a novel quantile-on-quantile (QQ) approach to construct the dependence estimates of the quantiles of gold and bond with the quantiles of stock markets. The QQ approach, recently developed by Sim and Zhou (2015), captures the dependence between the entire distributions of financial assets and uncovers some nuance features of the relationship. The empirical findings primarily show that gold is strong hedge and diversifier for the stock portfolio except when both the markets are under stress. Further, the flight to safety phenomenon is short-lived because national benchmark bonds exhibit a positive dependence with their respective countries stock indices at various quantiles. Unlike the existing literature, the QQ approach suggest that bonds act as safe havens for the stock portfolio but gold does not. Our findings also suggest that dependence between stock-gold and stock-bond pairs is not uniform and this relationship is market state (e.g. bearish, mild bearish, optimistic or bullish) and country specific.

Suggested Citation

  • Shahzad, Syed Jawad Hussain & Raza, Naveed & Shahbaz, Muhammad & Ali, Azwadi, 2017. "Dependence of Stock Markets with Gold and Bonds under Bullish and Bearish Market States," MPRA Paper 78595, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised 15 Apr 2017.
  • Handle: RePEc:pra:mprapa:78595
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: https://mpra.ub.uni-muenchen.de/78595/1/MPRA_paper_78595.pdf
    File Function: original version
    Download Restriction: no

    Other versions of this item:

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Lee, Tae-Hwy & Yang, Weiping, 2014. "Granger-causality in quantiles between financial markets: Using copula approach," International Review of Financial Analysis, Elsevier, vol. 33(C), pages 70-78.
    2. Dirk G. Baur & Brian M. Lucey, 2010. "Is Gold a Hedge or a Safe Haven? An Analysis of Stocks, Bonds and Gold," The Financial Review, Eastern Finance Association, vol. 45(2), pages 217-229, May.
    3. Lieven Baele & Geert Bekaert & Koen Inghelbrecht & Min Wei, 2012. "Flights to Safety," Working Paper Research 230, National Bank of Belgium.
    4. Syed jawad hussain Shahzad & Saba Ameer & Muhammad Shahbaz, 2016. "Disaggregating the correlation under bearish and bullish markets: A Quantile-quantile approach," Economics Bulletin, AccessEcon, vol. 36(4), pages 2465-2473.
    5. Geert Bekaert & Michael Ehrmann & Marcel Fratzscher & Arnaud Mehl, 2014. "The Global Crisis and Equity Market Contagion," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 69(6), pages 2597-2649, December.
    6. Adam, Tim R. & Fernando, Chitru S. & Salas, Jesus M., 2017. "Why do firms engage in selective hedging? Evidence from the gold mining industry," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 77(C), pages 269-282.
    7. Chudik, Alexander & Fratzscher, Marcel, 2010. "Identifying the Global Transmission of the 2007-09 Financial Crisis in a GVAR Model," CEPR Discussion Papers 8093, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    8. Baur, Dirk G. & McDermott, Thomas K., 2010. "Is gold a safe haven? International evidence," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 34(8), pages 1886-1898, August.
    9. Bodart, Vincent & Reding, Paul, 1999. "Exchange rate regime, volatility and international correlations on bond and stock markets," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 18(1), pages 133-151, January.
    10. Mensah, Jones Odei & Alagidede, Paul, 2017. "How are Africa's emerging stock markets related to advanced markets? Evidence from copulas," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 60(C), pages 1-10.
    11. Bekiros, Stelios & Boubaker, Sabri & Nguyen, Duc Khuong & Uddin, Gazi Salah, 2017. "Black swan events and safe havens: The role of gold in globally integrated emerging markets," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 73(PB), pages 317-334.
    12. Zhu, Hui-Ming & Li, ZhaoLai & You, WanHai & Zeng, Zhaofa, 2015. "Revisiting the asymmetric dynamic dependence of stock returns: Evidence from a quantile autoregression model," International Review of Financial Analysis, Elsevier, vol. 40(C), pages 142-153.
    13. Gilenko, Evgenii & Fedorova, Elena, 2014. "Internal and external spillover effects for the BRIC countries: Multivariate GARCH-in-mean approach," Research in International Business and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 31(C), pages 32-45.
    14. Wang, Kuan-Min & Lee, Yuan-Ming, 2016. "Hedging exchange rate risk in the gold market: A panel data analysis," Journal of Multinational Financial Management, Elsevier, vol. 35(C), pages 1-23.
    15. Longin, Francois & Solnik, Bruno, 1995. "Is the correlation in international equity returns constant: 1960-1990?," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 14(1), pages 3-26, February.
    16. Bejaoui, Azza & Karaa, Adel, 2016. "Revisiting the bull and bear markets notions in the Tunisian stock market: New evidence from multi-state duration-dependence Markov-switching models," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 59(C), pages 529-545.
    17. Fadejeva, Ludmila & Feldkircher, Martin & Reininger, Thomas, 2017. "International spillovers from Euro area and US credit and demand shocks: A focus on emerging Europe," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 70(C), pages 1-25.
    18. Chudik, Alexander & Fratzscher, Marcel, 2011. "Identifying the global transmission of the 2007-2009 financial crisis in a GVAR model," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 55(3), pages 325-339, April.
    19. Naveed Raza & Ahmad Ibn Ibrahimy & Azwadi Ali & Sajid Ali, 2016. "Gold and Islamic stocks: A hedge and safe haven comparison in time frequency domain for BRICS markets," Journal of Developing Areas, Tennessee State University, College of Business, vol. 50(6), pages 305-318, Special I.
    20. Avdoulas, Christos & Bekiros, Stelios & Boubaker, Sabri, 2016. "Detecting nonlinear dependencies in eurozone peripheral equity markets: A multistep filtering approach," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 58(C), pages 580-587.
    21. Bredin, Don & Conlon, Thomas & Potì, Valerio, 2015. "Does gold glitter in the long-run? Gold as a hedge and safe haven across time and investment horizon," International Review of Financial Analysis, Elsevier, vol. 41(C), pages 320-328.
    22. Hood, Matthew & Malik, Farooq, 2013. "Is gold the best hedge and a safe haven under changing stock market volatility?," Review of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 22(2), pages 47-52.
    23. Mensi, Walid & Hammoudeh, Shawkat & Reboredo, Juan C. & Nguyen, Duc Khuong, 2015. "Are Sharia stocks, gold and U.S. Treasury hedges and/or safe havens for the oil-based GCC markets?," Emerging Markets Review, Elsevier, vol. 24(C), pages 101-121.
    24. White, Halbert & Kim, Tae-Hwan & Manganelli, Simone, 2015. "VAR for VaR: Measuring tail dependence using multivariate regression quantiles," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 187(1), pages 169-188.
    25. Ben Rejeb, Aymen & Arfaoui, Mongi, 2016. "Financial market interdependencies: A quantile regression analysis of volatility spillover," Research in International Business and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 36(C), pages 140-157.
    26. Chkili, Walid, 2016. "Dynamic correlations and hedging effectiveness between gold and stock markets: Evidence for BRICS countries," Research in International Business and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 38(C), pages 22-34.
    27. Massimo Guidolin & Allan Timmermann, 2005. "Economic Implications of Bull and Bear Regimes in UK Stock and Bond Returns," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 115(500), pages 111-143, January.
    28. El Hedi Arouri, Mohamed & Lahiani, Amine & Nguyen, Duc Khuong, 2015. "World gold prices and stock returns in China: Insights for hedging and diversification strategies," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 44(C), pages 273-282.
    29. Batten, Jonathan A. & Ciner, Cetin & Lucey, Brian M., 2010. "The macroeconomic determinants of volatility in precious metals markets," Resources Policy, Elsevier, vol. 35(2), pages 65-71, June.
    30. Koenker, Roger W & Bassett, Gilbert, Jr, 1978. "Regression Quantiles," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 46(1), pages 33-50, January.
    31. Li, Mengling & Zheng, Huanhuan & Tai Leung Chong, Terence & Zhang, Yang, 2016. "The stock–bond comovements and cross-market trading," Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, Elsevier, vol. 73(C), pages 417-438.
    32. Pieterse-Bloem, Mary & Qian, Zhaowen & Verschoor, Willem & Zwinkels, Remco, 2016. "Time-varying importance of country and industry factors in European corporate bonds," Journal of Empirical Finance, Elsevier, vol. 38(PA), pages 429-448.
    33. Jammazi, Rania & Tiwari, Aviral Kr. & Ferrer, Román & Moya, Pablo, 2015. "Time-varying dependence between stock and government bond returns: International evidence with dynamic copulas," The North American Journal of Economics and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 33(C), pages 74-93.
    34. Janet E. Heffernan & Jonathan A. Tawn, 2004. "A conditional approach for multivariate extreme values (with discussion)," Journal of the Royal Statistical Society Series B, Royal Statistical Society, vol. 66(3), pages 497-546, August.
    35. Ang, Andrew & Chen, Joseph, 2002. "Asymmetric correlations of equity portfolios," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 63(3), pages 443-494, March.
    36. Ciner, Cetin & Gurdgiev, Constantin & Lucey, Brian M., 2013. "Hedges and safe havens: An examination of stocks, bonds, gold, oil and exchange rates," International Review of Financial Analysis, Elsevier, vol. 29(C), pages 202-211.
    37. Basher, Syed Abul & Sadorsky, Perry, 2016. "Hedging emerging market stock prices with oil, gold, VIX, and bonds: A comparison between DCC, ADCC and GO-GARCH," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 54(C), pages 235-247.
    38. Adam, Tim R. & Fernando, Chitru S. & Salas, Jesus M., 2015. "Why Do Firms Engage in Selective Hedging? Evidence from the Gold Mining Industry," Working Papers 15-07, University of Pennsylvania, Wharton School, Weiss Center.
    39. Mensi, Walid & Hammoudeh, Shawkat & Reboredo, Juan Carlos & Nguyen, Duc Khuong, 2014. "Do global factors impact BRICS stock markets? A quantile regression approach," Emerging Markets Review, Elsevier, vol. 19(C), pages 1-17.
    40. Sim, Nicholas & Zhou, Hongtao, 2015. "Oil prices, US stock return, and the dependence between their quantiles," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 55(C), pages 1-8.
    41. Aye, Goodness C. & Chang, Tsangyao & Gupta, Rangan, 2016. "Is gold an inflation-hedge? Evidence from an interrupted Markov-switching cointegration model," Resources Policy, Elsevier, vol. 48(C), pages 77-84.
    42. Reboredo, Juan C. & Ugolini, Andrea, 2016. "Quantile dependence of oil price movements and stock returns," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 54(C), pages 33-49.
    43. Sim, Nicholas, 2016. "Modeling the dependence structures of financial assets through the Copula Quantile-on-Quantile approach," International Review of Financial Analysis, Elsevier, vol. 48(C), pages 31-45.
    44. Beckmann, Joscha & Berger, Theo & Czudaj, Robert, 2015. "Does gold act as a hedge or a safe haven for stocks? A smooth transition approach," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 48(C), pages 16-24.
    45. Mensi, Walid & Hammoudeh, Shawkat & Tiwari, Aviral Kumar, 2016. "New evidence on hedges and safe havens for Gulf stock markets using the wavelet-based quantile," Emerging Markets Review, Elsevier, vol. 28(C), pages 155-183.
    46. Bekiros, Stelios D., 2014. "Contagion, decoupling and the spillover effects of the US financial crisis: Evidence from the BRIC markets," International Review of Financial Analysis, Elsevier, vol. 33(C), pages 58-69.
    47. Iqbal, Javed, 2017. "Does gold hedge stock market, inflation and exchange rate risks? An econometric investigation," International Review of Economics & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 48(C), pages 1-17.
    48. Batten, Jonathan A. & Ciner, Cetin & Lucey, Brian M, 2014. "On the economic determinants of the gold–inflation relation," Resources Policy, Elsevier, vol. 41(C), pages 101-108.
    49. Nath, Harmindar B. & Brooks, Robert D., 2015. "Assessing the idiosyncratic risk and stock returns relation in heteroskedasticity corrected predictive models using quantile regression," International Review of Economics & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 38(C), pages 94-111.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
    as


    Cited by:

    1. repec:eee:energy:v:166:y:2019:i:c:p:577-586 is not listed on IDEAS
    2. repec:eee:phsmap:v:506:y:2018:i:c:p:433-450 is not listed on IDEAS
    3. Shahzad, Syed Jawad Hussain & Hernandez, Jose Areola & Hanif, Waqas & Kayani, Ghulam Mujtaba, 2018. "Intraday return inefficiency and long memory in the volatilities of forex markets and the role of trading volume," Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications, Elsevier, vol. 506(C), pages 433-450.
    4. repec:eee:ecmode:v:72:y:2018:i:c:p:278-295 is not listed on IDEAS

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Stock; Gold; Quantile-on-Quantile; Diversification;

    JEL classification:

    • C01 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - General - - - Econometrics

    NEP fields

    This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:pra:mprapa:78595. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Joachim Winter). General contact details of provider: http://edirc.repec.org/data/vfmunde.html .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.