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Excess Liquidity and the Foreign Currency Constraint: The Case of Monetary Management in Guyana

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  • Khemraj, Tarron

Abstract

This paper examines why commercial banks in Guyana demand non-remunerated excess reserves, a phenomenon that became even more widespread after financial liberalisation. Despite the removal of capital controls, banks do not invest all excess reserves in a safe foreign asset because the central bank maintains an unofficial foreign currency constraint by accumulating international reserves. The findings suggest that commercial banks do not demand excess reserves for precautionary purpose – which is the conclusion of several other studies – but rather because of the maintained constraint. The estimated sterilisation coefficient is consistent with the hypothesis of an enforced constraint. The results, moreover, suggest an alternative way of looking at the monetary transmission mechanism in developing countries. The central bank maintains price and exchange rate stability through the accumulation of foreign reserves.

Suggested Citation

  • Khemraj, Tarron, 2008. "Excess Liquidity and the Foreign Currency Constraint: The Case of Monetary Management in Guyana," MPRA Paper 53127, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  • Handle: RePEc:pra:mprapa:53127
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Pedro Aspe Armella & Rudiger Dornbusch & Maurice Obstfeld, 1983. "Introduction to "Financial Policies and the World Capital Market: The Problem of Latin American Countries"," NBER Chapters,in: Financial Policies and the World Capital Market: The Problem of Latin American Countries, pages 1-4 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    2. Brissimis, Sophocles N & Gibson, Heather D & Tsakalotos, Euclid, 2002. "A Unifying Framework for Analysing Offsetting Capital Flows and Sterilization: Germany and the ERM," International Journal of Finance & Economics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 7(1), pages 63-78, January.
    3. Magnus Saxegaard, 2006. "Excess Liquidity and Effectiveness of Monetary Policy; Evidence from Sub-Saharan Africa," IMF Working Papers 06/115, International Monetary Fund.
    4. Pedro Aspe Armella & Rudiger Dornbusch & Maurice Obstfeld, 1983. "Financial Policies and the World Capital Market: The Problem of Latin American Countries," NBER Books, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc, number arme83-1, June.
    5. David Fielding & Anja Shortland, 2005. "Political Violence and Excess Liquidity in Egypt," Journal of Development Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 41(4), pages 542-557.
    6. Frederic S. Mishkin, 1995. "Symposium on the Monetary Transmission Mechanism," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 9(4), pages 3-10, Fall.
    7. Frost, Peter A, 1971. "Banks' Demand for Excess Reserves," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 79(4), pages 805-825, July-Aug..
    8. Tarron Khemraj, 2007. "What does excess bank liquidity say about the loan market in Less Developed Countries?," Working Papers 60, United Nations, Department of Economics and Social Affairs.
    9. Agenor, Pierre-Richard & Aizenman, Joshua & Hoffmaister, Alexander W., 2004. "The credit crunch in East Asia: what can bank excess liquid assets tell us?," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 23(1), pages 27-49, February.
    10. Baltensperger, Ernst, 1974. "The Precautionary Demand for Reserves," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 64(1), pages 205-210, March.
    11. Guillermo A. Calvo, 1991. "The Perils of Sterilization," IMF Staff Papers, Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 38(4), pages 921-926, December.
    12. Mohsen Bahmani-Oskooee & Hafez Rehman, 2005. "Stability of the money demand function in Asian developing countries," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 37(7), pages 773-792.
    13. Baltensperger, Ernst, 1980. "Alternative approaches to the theory of the banking firm," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 6(1), pages 1-37, January.
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    Citations

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    Cited by:

    1. Jonathan Batten & Peter Szilagyi, 2011. "The Recent Internationalization of Japanese Banks," Japanese Economy, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 38(1), pages 81-120.
    2. Primus, Keyra, 2017. "Excess reserves, monetary policy and financial volatility," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 74(C), pages 153-168.
    3. Guy, Kester & Lowe, Shane, 2012. "Tracing the Liquidity Effects on Bank Stability in Barbados," MPRA Paper 52205, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    4. Khemraj, Tarron & Pasha, Sukrishnalall, 2008. "Foreign exchange market bid-ask spread and market power in an underdeveloped economy," MPRA Paper 11422, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    5. Festic, Mejra & Kavkler, Alenka, 2012. "The Roots of the Banking Crisis in the New EU Member States: A Panel Regression Approach," Journal for Economic Forecasting, Institute for Economic Forecasting, vol. 0(1), pages 20-40, March.
    6. Khemraj, Tarron & Langrin, R. Brian, 2009. "Dynamic interactions of bank assets in two foreign currency constrained economies," MPRA Paper 36620, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised Nov 2010.
    7. Hearn, Bruce, 2013. "Size and liquidity effects in Nigeria: an industrial sector study," MPRA Paper 47975, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    8. Anderson-Reid, Karen, 2011. "Excess reserves in Jamaican Commercial Banks: The implications for Monetary Policy," MPRA Paper 43663, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    9. Khemraj, Tarron, 2007. "The missing link: the finance-growth nexus and the Guyanese growth stagnation," MPRA Paper 16342, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    10. Primus, Keyra, 2013. "Excess Reserves, Monetary Policy and Financial Volatility," MPRA Paper 51670, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    11. Willmott, Bryony, 2014. "Excess reserves, interbank markets and domestic money market intervention," MPRA Paper 57046, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    12. Khemraj, Tarron & Primus, Keyra, 2013. "Testing for the Credit Crunch in Trinidad and Tobago Using an Alternative Method," MPRA Paper 47372, University Library of Munich, Germany.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Excess bank liquidity; monetary transmission mechanism; ARDL model; Guyana;

    JEL classification:

    • E30 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Prices, Business Fluctuations, and Cycles - - - General (includes Measurement and Data)
    • E42 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Money and Interest Rates - - - Monetary Sytsems; Standards; Regimes; Government and the Monetary System
    • E51 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Monetary Policy, Central Banking, and the Supply of Money and Credit - - - Money Supply; Credit; Money Multipliers
    • E52 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Monetary Policy, Central Banking, and the Supply of Money and Credit - - - Monetary Policy
    • F31 - International Economics - - International Finance - - - Foreign Exchange

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