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The simple analytics of oligopoly banking in developing economies


  • Khemraj, Tarron


Previous studies have documented the tendency for the commercial banking sector of many developing economies to be highly liquid and be characterised by a persistently high interest rate spread. This paper embeds these stylised facts in an oligopoly model of the banking firm. The paper derives both the loan and deposit rates as a mark up rate over a relatively safe foreign interest rate. Then, using a diagrammatic framework, the paper provides an analysis of: (i) the distribution of financial surplus among savers, business borrowers and banks; (ii) exogenous deposit shocks; (iii) exogenous loan demand shocks; and (iv) the impact of interest rate control on financial intermediation.

Suggested Citation

  • Khemraj, Tarron, 2010. "The simple analytics of oligopoly banking in developing economies," MPRA Paper 22266, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  • Handle: RePEc:pra:mprapa:22266

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Magnus Saxegaard, 2006. "Excess Liquidity and Effectiveness of Monetary Policy; Evidence from Sub-Saharan Africa," IMF Working Papers 06/115, International Monetary Fund.
    2. David Neumark & Steven A. Sharpe, 1992. "Market Structure and the Nature of Price Rigidity: Evidence from the Market for Consumer Deposits," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 107(2), pages 657-680.
    3. Hannan, Timothy H, 1991. "Foundations of the Structure-Conduct-Performance Paradigm in Banking," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 23(1), pages 68-84, February.
    4. Ephraim W. Chirwa & Montfort Mlachila, 2004. "Financial Reforms and Interest Rate Spreads in the Commercial Banking System in Malawi," IMF Staff Papers, Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 51(1), pages 1-5.
    5. Winston Moore & Roland Craigwell, 2002. "Market Power and Interest Rate Spreads in the Caribbean," International Review of Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 16(4), pages 391-405.
    6. David Fielding & Anja Shortland, 2002. "Political Violence and Excess Liquidity in Egypt: A Note," Discussion Papers in Economics 02/5, Department of Economics, University of Leicester.
    7. Hannan, Timothy H & Berger, Allen N, 1991. "The Rigidity of Prices: Evidence from the Banking Industry," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 81(4), pages 938-945, September.
    8. David Fielding & Anja Shortland, 2005. "Political Violence and Excess Liquidity in Egypt," Journal of Development Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 41(4), pages 542-557.
    9. Tarron Khemraj, 2007. "What does excess bank liquidity say about the loan market in Less Developed Countries?," Working Papers 60, United Nations, Department of Economics and Social Affairs.
    10. R. Gaston Gelos, 2009. "Banking Spreads In Latin America," Economic Inquiry, Western Economic Association International, vol. 47(4), pages 796-814, October.
    11. Slovin, Myron B & Sushka, Marie Elizabeth, 1983. " A Model of the Commercial Loan Rate," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 38(5), pages 1583-1596, December.
    12. C. A. E. Goodhart, 2009. "The Continuing Muddles of Monetary Theory: A Steadfast Refusal to Face Facts," Economica, London School of Economics and Political Science, vol. 76(s1), pages 821-830, October.
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    Cited by:

    1. Khemraj, Tarron & Primus, Keyra, 2013. "Testing for the Credit Crunch in Trinidad and Tobago Using an Alternative Method," MPRA Paper 47372, University Library of Munich, Germany.

    More about this item


    Oligopoly; commercial banks; developing economies; distribution;

    JEL classification:

    • D30 - Microeconomics - - Distribution - - - General
    • E40 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Money and Interest Rates - - - General
    • G21 - Financial Economics - - Financial Institutions and Services - - - Banks; Other Depository Institutions; Micro Finance Institutions; Mortgages

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