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Excess liquidity, oligopolistic loan markets and monetary policy in LDCs

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  • Tarron Khemraj

Abstract

Evidence about commercial banks’ liquidity preference says the following about the loan market in LDCs: (i) the loan interest rate is a minimum mark-up rate; (ii) the loan market is characterized by oligopoly power; and (iii) indirect monetary policy, a cornerstone of financial liberalization, can only be effective at very high interest rates that are likely to be deflationary. The minimum rate is a mark-up over an exogenous foreign interest rate, marginal transaction costs and a risk premium. The paper utilizes and extends the oligopoly model of the banking firm. A calibration exercise tends to replicate the observed stylized facts.

Suggested Citation

  • Tarron Khemraj, 2008. "Excess liquidity, oligopolistic loan markets and monetary policy in LDCs," Working Papers 64, United Nations, Department of Economics and Social Affairs.
  • Handle: RePEc:une:wpaper:64
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    File URL: http://www.un.org/esa/desa/papers/2008/wp64_2008.pdf
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Valerie R. Bencivenga & Bruce D. Smith, 1991. "Financial Intermediation and Endogenous Growth," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 58(2), pages 195-209.
    2. Philip Arestis & Panicos Demetriades, 1999. "Financial Liberalization: The Experience of Developing Countries," Eastern Economic Journal, Eastern Economic Association, vol. 25(4), pages 441-457, Fall.
    3. Stiglitz, Joseph E, 1989. "Financial Markets and Development," Oxford Review of Economic Policy, Oxford University Press, vol. 5(4), pages 55-68, Winter.
    4. David Fielding & Anja Shortland, 2005. "Political Violence and Excess Liquidity in Egypt," Journal of Development Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 41(4), pages 542-557.
    5. Carare, Alina & Stone, Mark R., 2006. "Inflation targeting regimes," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 50(5), pages 1297-1315, July.
    6. Ajit Singh, 1998. "Financial liberalisation, stockmarkets and economic development," Nova Economia, Economics Department, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (Brazil), vol. 8(1), pages 165-182.
    7. Cooley, Thomas F, 1997. "Calibrated Models," Oxford Review of Economic Policy, Oxford University Press, vol. 13(3), pages 55-69, Autumn.
    8. Fry, Maxwell J., 1982. "Models of financially repressed developing economies," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 10(9), pages 731-750, September.
    9. Slovin, Myron B & Sushka, Marie Elizabeth, 1983. " A Model of the Commercial Loan Rate," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 38(5), pages 1583-1596, December.
    10. Mark R. Stone, 2003. "Inflation Targeting Lite," IMF Working Papers 03/12, International Monetary Fund.
    11. Ephraim W. Chirwa & Montfort Mlachila, 2004. "Financial Reforms and Interest Rate Spreads in the Commercial Banking System in Malawi," IMF Staff Papers, Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 51(1), pages 1-5.
    12. Tomás J. T. Baliño & Charles Enoch & William E. Alexander, 1995. "The Adoption of Indirect Instruments of Monetary Policy," IMF Occasional Papers 126, International Monetary Fund.
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    Citations

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    Cited by:

    1. Khemraj, Tarron & Pasha, Sukrishnalall, 2008. "Foreign exchange market bid-ask spread and market power in an underdeveloped economy," MPRA Paper 11422, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    2. Khemraj, Tarron & Pasha, Sukrishnalall, 2012. "Analysis of an unannounced foreign exchange regime change," Economic Systems, Elsevier, vol. 36(1), pages 145-157.
    3. Khemraj, Tarron & Hinova, Diana, 2011. "Elected Oligarchy and Economic Underdevelopment: The Case of Guyana," MPRA Paper 29733, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    4. Khemraj, Tarron & Langrin, R. Brian, 2009. "Dynamic interactions of bank assets in two foreign currency constrained economies," MPRA Paper 36620, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised Nov 2010.
    5. Nyamongo, Esman & Ndirangu, Lydia Ndirangu2, 2013. "Financial Innovations and Monetary Policy in Kenya," MPRA Paper 52387, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    6. Jayaraman, T.K. & Choong, Chee-Keong, 2012. "Implications of Excess Liquidity in Fiji’s Banking System: An Empirical Study," MPRA Paper 43505, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    7. Guy, Kester & Lowe, Shane, 2012. "Tracing the Liquidity Effects on Bank Stability in Barbados," MPRA Paper 52205, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    8. Soldatos, Gerasimos T., 2015. "A Bilateral Monopsony Approach to Lending, and the Hidden Economy in LDCs," MPRA Paper 66896, University Library of Munich, Germany.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    excess bank liquidity; oligopoly loan market; monetary policy;

    JEL classification:

    • O10 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Development - - - General
    • O16 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Development - - - Financial Markets; Saving and Capital Investment; Corporate Finance and Governance
    • E52 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Monetary Policy, Central Banking, and the Supply of Money and Credit - - - Monetary Policy
    • G21 - Financial Economics - - Financial Institutions and Services - - - Banks; Other Depository Institutions; Micro Finance Institutions; Mortgages
    • L13 - Industrial Organization - - Market Structure, Firm Strategy, and Market Performance - - - Oligopoly and Other Imperfect Markets

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