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The return-to-entrepreneurship puzzle

Author

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  • Hyytinen, Ari
  • Ilmakunnas, Pekka
  • Toivanen, Otto

Abstract

The returns to entrepreneurship are monetary and non-monetary. We offer new evidence on these returns using a large sample of genetically identical male twins. Our within-twin analysis suggests that OLS estimates are downwards, and traditional first-differenced panel data estimates upwards biased. We find no differences in the earnings of men with either low or high education. Our within-twin analysis of non-monetary returns shows that entrepreneurs with low education work longer hours and have greater responsibilities, but also face a reduced risk of divorce and less monotonous work tasks. The same does not apply to highly educated entrepreneurs.

Suggested Citation

  • Hyytinen, Ari & Ilmakunnas, Pekka & Toivanen, Otto, 2011. "The return-to-entrepreneurship puzzle," MPRA Paper 30076, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  • Handle: RePEc:pra:mprapa:30076
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    Cited by:

    1. Dorner, Matthias & Fryges, Helmut & Schopen, Kathrin, 2015. "Wages in high-tech start-ups - do academic spin-offs pay a wage premium?," IAB Discussion Paper 201517, Institut für Arbeitsmarkt- und Berufsforschung (IAB), Nürnberg [Institute for Employment Research, Nuremberg, Germany].
    2. Böckerman, Petri & Ilmakunnas, Pekka & Vainiomäki, Jari, 2014. "Using Twins to Resolve the Twin Problem of Having a Bad Job and a Low Wage," IZA Discussion Papers 8557, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
    3. Mirjam Praag & Arjen van Witteloostuijn & Justin van der Sluis, 2013. "The higher returns to formal education for entrepreneurs versus employees," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 40(2), pages 375-396, February.
    4. Mirjam van Praag & Arjen van Witteloostuijn & Justin van der Sluis, 2009. "Returns for Entrepreneurs versus Employees: The Effect of Education and Personal Control on the Relative Performance of Entrepreneurs vis-a-vis Wage Employees," Tinbergen Institute Discussion Papers 09-111/3, Tinbergen Institute.
    5. Böckerman, Petri & Vainiomäki, Jari, 2013. "Stature and life-time labor market outcomes: Accounting for unobserved differences," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 24(C), pages 86-96.
    6. Michael Wyrwich, 2015. "Entrepreneurship and the intergenerational transmission of values," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 45(1), pages 191-213, June.
    7. Alina Sorgner & Michael Fritsch & Alexander Kritikos, 2017. "Do entrepreneurs really earn less?," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 49(2), pages 251-272, August.
    8. Lechmann, Daniel S. J., 2013. "Can working conditions explain the return-to-entrepreneurship puzzle?," Discussion Papers 86, Friedrich-Alexander University Erlangen-Nuremberg, Chair of Labour and Regional Economics.
    9. Nyström, Kristina, 2015. "Pre- and post-entrepreneurship labor mobility of entrepreneurs and employees in entrepreneurial firms," Working Paper Series in Economics and Institutions of Innovation 420, Royal Institute of Technology, CESIS - Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies.
    10. Michael Wyrwich, 2013. "In the name of my parents: Entrepreneurship and the intergenerational transmission of values," Jena Economic Research Papers 2013-031, Friedrich-Schiller-University Jena.
    11. Hårsman, Björn & Mattsson, Lars-Göran & Hovsepyan, Vardan, 2017. "The income return to entrepreneurship – theoretical model and outcomes for Swedish regions," Working Paper Series in Economics and Institutions of Innovation 463, Royal Institute of Technology, CESIS - Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies.
    12. Bublitz, Elisabeth & Nielsen, Kristian & Noseleit, Florian & Timmermans, Bram, 2015. "Entrepreneurship, human capital, and labor demand: A story of signaling and matching," HWWI Research Papers 166, Hamburg Institute of International Economics (HWWI).
    13. repec:eee:joepsy:v:64:y:2018:i:c:p:116-129 is not listed on IDEAS
    14. Dorner, Matthias & Fryges, Helmut & Schopen, Kathrin, 2015. "Wages in high-tech start-ups: Do academic spin-offs pay a wage premium?," ZEW Discussion Papers 15-038, ZEW - Zentrum für Europäische Wirtschaftsforschung / Center for European Economic Research.
    15. Åstebro, Thomas & Chen, Jing, 2014. "The entrepreneurial earnings puzzle: Mismeasurement or real?," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 29(1), pages 88-105.
    16. Failla, Virgilio & Melillo, Francesca & Reichstein, Toke, 2017. "Entrepreneurship and employment stability — Job matching, labour market value, and personal commitment," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 32(2), pages 162-177.
    17. Viktor Slavtchev & Michael Wyrwich, 2017. "TV and Entrepreneurship," Jena Economic Research Papers 2017-007, Friedrich-Schiller-University Jena.
    18. van Praag, Mirjam C. & van Witteloostuijn, Arjen & van der Sluis, Justin, 2009. "Returns for Entrepreneurs vs. Employees: The Effect of Education and Personal Control on the Relative Performance of Entrepreneurs vs. Wage Employees," IZA Discussion Papers 4628, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
    19. Böckerman, Petri & Maczulskij, Terhi, 2016. "The Education-health Nexus: Fact and fiction," Social Science & Medicine, Elsevier, vol. 150(C), pages 112-116.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    entrepreneurship; earnings; twin data; education; monetary returns; nonmonetary returns; selection;

    JEL classification:

    • J24 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demand and Supply of Labor - - - Human Capital; Skills; Occupational Choice; Labor Productivity
    • L26 - Industrial Organization - - Firm Objectives, Organization, and Behavior - - - Entrepreneurship

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