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Fertility and Birth Spacing Consequences of Childhood Immunization Program: Evidence from India

  • Santosh, Kumar

What are the effects of childhood immunization program (UIP) on women's fertility and birth spacing? I examine the effect of this immunization program on women's subsequent fertility and birth spacing by exploiting district-by-cohort variation in exposure to the program. The results indicate that exposure of the first-born child to the immunization program reduces the likelihood of subsequent and cumulative fertility of women and increases the birth intervals between first and second births. The effects are more pronounced in urban areas. The signicant program effect on fertility and birth intervals can be explained in terms of reduction in child mortality due to the immunization program. Kumar (2009) finds that UIP has a significant and negative eect on infant and under-five mortality.

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Paper provided by University Library of Munich, Germany in its series MPRA Paper with number 27126.

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Date of creation: 15 May 2009
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Handle: RePEc:pra:mprapa:27126
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  1. Anne Pebley & Paul Stupp, 1987. "Reproductive patterns and child mortality in guatemala," Demography, Springer, vol. 24(1), pages 43-60, February.
  2. Gary S. Becker & Robert J. Barro, . "A Reformulation of the Economic Theory of Fertility," University of Chicago - Population Research Center 85-11, Chicago - Population Research Center.
  3. Alessandro Cigno, 1998. "Fertility decisions when infant survival is endogenous," Journal of Population Economics, Springer, vol. 11(1), pages 21-28.
  4. Sah, R.K., 1989. "The Effects Of Mortality Changes On Fertility Choice And Individual Welfare: Some Theoretical Predictions," Papers 599, Yale - Economic Growth Center.
  5. Bhalotra, Sonia & Soest, Arthur van, 2008. "Birth-spacing, fertility and neonatal mortality in India: Dynamics, frailty, and fecundity," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 143(2), pages 274-290, April.
  6. Barro, R.J. & Becker, G.S., 1988. "Fertility Choice In A Model Of Economic Growth," University of Chicago - Economics Research Center 88-8, Chicago - Economics Research Center.
  7. Schultz, T Paul, 1969. "An Economic Model of Family Planning and Fertility," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 77(2), pages 153-80, March/Apr.
  8. Elizabeth Zenger, 1993. "Siblings’ neonatal mortality risks and birth spacing in Bangladesh," Demography, Springer, vol. 30(3), pages 477-488, August.
  9. David E. Bloom & David Canning & Mark Weston, 2005. "The Value of Vaccination," World Economics, World Economics, Economic & Financial Publishing, 1 Ivory Square, Plantation Wharf, London, United Kingdom, SW11 3UE, vol. 6(3), pages 15-39, July.
  10. repec:cup:cbooks:9780521117562 is not listed on IDEAS
  11. Michele Boldrin & Larry E. Jones, 2002. "Mortality, Fertility, and Saving in a Malthusian Economy," Review of Economic Dynamics, Elsevier for the Society for Economic Dynamics, vol. 5(4), pages 775-814, October.
  12. O'Hara, Donald J, 1975. "Microeconomic Aspects of the Demographic Transition," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 83(6), pages 1203-16, December.
  13. Robert Moffitt, 2003. "Causal Analysis in Population Research: An Economist's Perspective," Population and Development Review, The Population Council, Inc., vol. 29(3), pages 448-458.
  14. Santosh, Kumar, 2009. "Childhood Immunization, Mortality and Human Capital Accumulation: Micro-Evidence from India," MPRA Paper 27127, University Library of Munich, Germany.
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