Fertility and Birth Spacing Consequences of Childhood Immunization Program: Evidence from India
What are the effects of childhood immunization program (UIP) on women's fertility and birth spacing? I examine the effect of this immunization program on women's subsequent fertility and birth spacing by exploiting district-by-cohort variation in exposure to the program. The results indicate that exposure of the first-born child to the immunization program reduces the likelihood of subsequent and cumulative fertility of women and increases the birth intervals between first and second births. The effects are more pronounced in urban areas. The signicant program effect on fertility and birth intervals can be explained in terms of reduction in child mortality due to the immunization program. Kumar (2009) finds that UIP has a significant and negative eect on infant and under-five mortality.
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