IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/
MyIDEAS: Login to save this paper or follow this series

The General Equilibrium Wage Impact of Trade-Induced Shifts in Industrial Compositions of Employment in Brazilian Cities, 1991-2000

  • Mardukhi, Jian
Registered author(s):

    Conventionally, it is presumed that restructuring of industrial composition of employment only modestly affects the average wage. This is because in a partial equilibrium setting such a restructuring affects the calculation of the average wage only through changes in employment shares of industries used as weights on constant industry wages. On the contrary, this paper brings substantial evidence indicating that aside from such partial equilibrium shift-share effects, a change in industrial composition sizably impacts all industry wages through general equilibrium (G.E.) feed-backs from the average wage – as a reservation wage in all industries in a search and bargaining framework – onto all industry wages. In particular, this paper uses Brazilian census data for years 1991 and 2000 to study the G.E. wage impacts of exogenous shifts in industrial compositions in cities of Brazil induced by substantial trade liberalization in this country during the 1990s. A restructuring of industrial composition in a city favoring high-wage industries that modestly raises the average wage in this city by only 1% through shift-share accounting, is estimated here to increase all industry wages in the city in average by at least twice as much – between 2 to 4 percent – in the long-run through the G.E impacts, resulting in an overall increase of 3 to 5 percent in the average wage. Concerns about endogeneity is address by using an IV strategy that exploits distance of a city from major international commercial ports as an indicator of how the change in trade policy impacted its industrial composition. The result is also robust to correcting for sample selection bias generated by regional migrations and to the presence of alternative explanatory mechanisms. The finding here highlights the importance of considering G.E. interactions in policy evaluations. It also indicates that major changes in national industrial or trade policies in developing countries such as Brazil, with already non-uniform distribution of economic development across regions, create geographical winners and losers depending on how the impacts are distributed across different localities sub-nationally. If the distribution of impacts is such that the losers-to-be regions are those already suffering, then balancing measures are necessary to avoid spatially uneven sub-national economic development.

    If you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.

    File URL: http://mpra.ub.uni-muenchen.de/25916/1/MPRA_paper_25916.pdf
    File Function: original version
    Download Restriction: no

    Paper provided by University Library of Munich, Germany in its series MPRA Paper with number 25916.

    as
    in new window

    Length:
    Date of creation: 01 Oct 2010
    Date of revision:
    Handle: RePEc:pra:mprapa:25916
    Contact details of provider: Postal: Schackstr. 4, D-80539 Munich, Germany
    Phone: +49-(0)89-2180-2219
    Fax: +49-(0)89-2180-3900
    Web page: http://mpra.ub.uni-muenchen.de

    More information through EDIRC

    References listed on IDEAS
    Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:

    as in new window
    1. da Mata, D. & Deichmann, U. & Henderson, J.V. & Lall, S.V. & Wang, H.G., 2007. "Determinants of city growth in Brazil," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 62(2), pages 252-272, September.
    2. Mion, Giordano & Naticchioni, Paolo, 2005. "Urbanization Externalities, Market Potential and Spatial Sorting of Skills and Firms," CEPR Discussion Papers 5172, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    3. Thibault Fally & Rodrigo Paillacar & Cristina Terra, 2008. "Economic Geography and Wages in Brazil: Evidence from Micro-Data," THEMA Working Papers 2008-23, THEMA (THéorie Economique, Modélisation et Applications), Université de Cergy-Pontoise.
    4. Joseph Potter & Carl Schmertmann & Suzana Cavenaghi, 2002. "Fertility and development: evidence from Brazil," Demography, Springer, vol. 39(4), pages 739-761, November.
    5. Daron Acemoglu & Joshua Angrist, 1999. "How Large are the Social Returns to Education? Evidence from Compulsory Schooling Laws," NBER Working Papers 7444, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    6. Stephen Redding & Anthony J. Venables, 2001. "Economic geography and international inequality," LSE Research Online Documents on Economics 3714, London School of Economics and Political Science, LSE Library.
    7. Laura Hering & Sandra Poncet, 2006. "Market Access Impact on Individual Wage: Evidence from China," Working Papers 2006-23, CEPII research center.
    8. Manski, Charles F, 1993. "Identification of Endogenous Social Effects: The Reflection Problem," Review of Economic Studies, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 60(3), pages 531-42, July.
    9. T. Knaap, 2005. "Trade, location, and wages in the United States," Working Papers 05-30, Utrecht School of Economics.
    10. Gordon Dahl, 1997. "Mobility and the Returns to Education: Testing A Roy Model With Multiple Markets," Working Papers 760, Princeton University, Department of Economics, Industrial Relations Section..
    11. Head, Keith & Mayer, Thierry, 2005. "Regional Wage and Employment Responses to Market Potential in the EU," CEPR Discussion Papers 4908, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    12. Moretti, Enrico, 2004. "Estimating the social return to higher education: evidence from longitudinal and repeated cross-sectional data," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 121(1-2), pages 175-212.
    13. Lall, Somik V. & Funderburg, Richard & Yepes, Tito, 2003. "Location, concentration, and performance of economic activity in Brazil," Policy Research Working Paper Series 3268, The World Bank.
    14. Daniel Lederman & Claudio Bravo-Ortega & Pablo Fajnzylber, 2004. "The Wage Geography of Brazil after the Reforms," Econometric Society 2004 Latin American Meetings 281, Econometric Society.
    15. Stephen Redding & Peter K Schott, 2003. "Distance, skill deepening and development : will peripheral countries ever get rich?," LSE Research Online Documents on Economics 207, London School of Economics and Political Science, LSE Library.
    16. Combes, Pierre-Philippe & Duranton, Gilles, 2006. "Labour pooling, labour poaching, and spatial clustering," Regional Science and Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 36(1), pages 1-28, January.
    17. Combes, Pierre-Philippe & Duranton, Gilles & Gobillon, Laurent, 2004. "Spatial Wage Disparities: Sorting Matters!," CEPR Discussion Papers 4240, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    18. Ernesto F. L. Amaral & Daniel S. Hamermesh & Joseph E. Potter & Eduardo L.G. Rios-Neto, 2007. "Demographic Change and the Structure of Wages: A Demand-Theoretic Analysis for Brazil," NBER Working Papers 13533, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    19. Mossi, Mariano & Aroca, Patricio & Fernandez, Ismael & Azzoni, Carlos, 2002. "Growth dynamics and space in Brazil," ERSA conference papers ersa02p499, European Regional Science Association.
    20. Ferreira, Pedro Cavalcanti Gomes & Salvato, Márcio Antônio & Duarte, Angelo José Mont'Alverne, 2004. "Regional or educational disparities? A counterfactual exercise," Economics Working Papers (Ensaios Economicos da EPGE) 532, FGV/EPGE Escola Brasileira de Economia e Finanças, Getulio Vargas Foundation (Brazil).
    21. Olivier Jean Blanchard & Lawrence F. Katz, 1992. "Regional Evolutions," Brookings Papers on Economic Activity, Economic Studies Program, The Brookings Institution, vol. 23(1), pages 1-76.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    This item is not listed on Wikipedia, on a reading list or among the top items on IDEAS.

    When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:pra:mprapa:25916. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Ekkehart Schlicht)

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.

    If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    This information is provided to you by IDEAS at the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis using RePEc data.