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Reviewing the 17 Sustainable Development Goals: Importance and Progress


  • Halkos, George
  • Gkampoura, Eleni-Christina


The United Nations introduced the 17 Sustainable Development Goals in 2015, aiming to tackle economic, social and environmental problems that exist in the world and to promote the concept of sustainability and sustainable development. This paper provides a comprehensive literature review regarding the background of sustainable development and each one of the 17 SDGs; an in-depth analysis of the problems addressed in each goal is provided and these problems’ impacts in the world are identified. The importance of achieving each goal is highlighted, while recent data regarding the targets included in each goal are provided, as well as the mean changes of these data for the past few years, based on a trend analysis that we performed. An evaluation of the achievement of various targets is discussed; we highlight the need of improvement of various SDGs’ progress, including the 4th, 11th and 13th SDG.

Suggested Citation

  • Halkos, George & Gkampoura, Eleni-Christina, 2021. "Reviewing the 17 Sustainable Development Goals: Importance and Progress," MPRA Paper 105329, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  • Handle: RePEc:pra:mprapa:105329

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    More about this item


    Sustainable Development Goals; SDGs progress; sustainability.;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • I31 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Welfare, Well-Being, and Poverty - - - General Welfare, Well-Being
    • O44 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Growth and Aggregate Productivity - - - Environment and Growth
    • Q01 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - General - - - Sustainable Development
    • Q56 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Environmental Economics - - - Environment and Development; Environment and Trade; Sustainability; Environmental Accounts and Accounting; Environmental Equity; Population Growth
    • Q58 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Environmental Economics - - - Environmental Economics: Government Policy

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