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The Impact of Off-Balance-Sheet Activities on Banks Returns: An Application of the ARCH-M to Canadian Data

Author

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  • Christian Calmès

    () (Département des sciences administratives, Université du Québec (Outaouais), et Chaire d'information financière et organisationnelle, ESG-UQAM)

  • Raymond Théoret

    () (Département de stratégie des affaires, Université du Québec (Montréal), et Chaire d'information financière et organisationnelle, ESG-UQAM)

Abstract

This paper revisits the impact of off-balance-sheet (OBS) activities on banks risk-return trade-off. Recent studies (e.g., Stiroh and Rumble 2006) suggest that increasing OBS activities do not necessarily yield straightforward diversification benefits for banks. However, introducing a risk premium in the standard banks returns models, and resorting to an ARCH-M procedure, Canadian data suggest that banks risk-return trade-off displays a structural break around 1997. In the second subperiod of our sample (1997-2007), we find that the noninterest income generated by OBS activities no longer impacts banks returns negatively. While during the first period (1988-1996) the volatility variable is not significant in any returns equations, a risk premium eventually emerged, pricing the risk associated to OBS activities risks.

Suggested Citation

  • Christian Calmès & Raymond Théoret, 2009. "The Impact of Off-Balance-Sheet Activities on Banks Returns: An Application of the ARCH-M to Canadian Data," RePAd Working Paper Series UQO-DSA-wp032009, Département des sciences administratives, UQO.
  • Handle: RePEc:pqs:wpaper:032009
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    Cited by:

    1. Christian Calm¨¨s & Raymond Th¨¦oret, 2013. "Is the Canadian Banking System Really ¡°Stronger¡± than the U.S. One?," Review of Economics & Finance, Better Advances Press, Canada, vol. 3, pages 1-18, November.
    2. Cardone-Riportella, Clara & Samaniego-Medina, Reyes & Trujillo-Ponce, Antonio, 2010. "What drives bank securitisation? The Spanish experience," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 34(11), pages 2639-2651, November.
    3. Christian Calmès & Raymond Théoret, 2013. "The change in banks' product mix, diversification and performance: An application of multivariate GARCH to Canadian data," RePAd Working Paper Series UQO-DSA-wp012013, Département des sciences administratives, UQO.
    4. Calmès, Christian & Théoret, Raymond, 2014. "Bank systemic risk and macroeconomic shocks: Canadian and U.S. evidence," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 40(C), pages 388-402.
    5. Perera, Anil & Ralston, Deborah & Wickramanayake, J., 2014. "Impact of off-balance sheet banking on the bank lending channel of monetary transmission: Evidence from South Asia," Journal of International Financial Markets, Institutions and Money, Elsevier, vol. 29(C), pages 195-216.
    6. Mayordomo, Sergio & Rodriguez-Moreno, Maria & Peña, Juan Ignacio, 2014. "Derivatives holdings and systemic risk in the U.S. banking sector," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 45(C), pages 84-104.
    7. Christian Calmes & Raymond Theoret, 2011. "Lifting the Veil: Regulation and Shadow Banking," e-briefs 110, C.D. Howe Institute.
    8. Guidara, Alaa & Lai, Van Son & Soumaré, Issouf & Tchana, Fulbert Tchana, 2013. "Banks’ capital buffer, risk and performance in the Canadian banking system: Impact of business cycles and regulatory changes," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 37(9), pages 3373-3387.
    9. Nguyen, James, 2012. "The relationship between net interest margin and noninterest income using a system estimation approach," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 36(9), pages 2429-2437.
    10. Christian Calmès & Raymond Théoret, 2011. "Bank systemic risk and the business cycle: An empirical investigation using Canadian data," RePAd Working Paper Series UQO-DSA-wp322011, Département des sciences administratives, UQO.
    11. Christian Calmès & Raymond Théoret, 2013. "Is the Canadian banking system really “stronger” than the U.S. one?," RePAd Working Paper Series UQO-DSA-wp022013, Département des sciences administratives, UQO.
    12. Philippe Bergevin & Christian Calmès & Raymond Théoret, 2013. "Time-Varying Leverage and Basel III: A Look at Canadian Evidence," International Advances in Economic Research, Springer;International Atlantic Economic Society, vol. 19(3), pages 233-247, August.
    13. Calmès, Christian & Théoret, Raymond, 2013. "Market-oriented banking, financial stability and macro-prudential indicators of leverage," Journal of International Financial Markets, Institutions and Money, Elsevier, vol. 27(C), pages 13-34.
    14. Uhde, André & Michalak, Tobias C., 2010. "Securitization and systematic risk in European banking: Empirical evidence," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 34(12), pages 3061-3077, December.
    15. Nijskens, Rob & Wagner, Wolf, 2011. "Credit risk transfer activities and systemic risk: How banks became less risky individually but posed greater risks to the financial system at the same time," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 35(6), pages 1391-1398, June.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Regulatory changes; Noninterest income; Diversification; Structural break; Risk premium.;

    JEL classification:

    • G20 - Financial Economics - - Financial Institutions and Services - - - General
    • G21 - Financial Economics - - Financial Institutions and Services - - - Banks; Other Depository Institutions; Micro Finance Institutions; Mortgages

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