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Financial Structure Change and Banking Income: a Canada-U.S. Comparison

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  • Christian Calmès

    () (Département des sciences administratives, Université du Québec en Outaouais et LRSP)

  • Ying Liu

    () (Bank of Canada)

Abstract

Data suggest that the Canadian financial structure, and particularly indirect finance (e.g., banking), have become more market-oriented. we associate this financiel trend in part with the regulatory changes that have occured in Canada since the 1980s. Financial intermediaries are increasingly involved with financial market activities --e.g. off-balance sheet (OBS) activities such as underwriting securities. For this reason, we analyze the noninterest income attributable to financial market activities. We find that the variance of Canadian banks' aggregate operating-income growth is rising because of the increased contribution of noninterest income. This component is by nature quite volatile compared to interest income. Consequently, our analysis corroborates the U.S. finding of Stiroh (2004), and Stiroh and Rumble (2005): By contributing to banking income volatility, market-oriented activities do not necessarily yield straightforward diversification benefits to Canadian banks.

Suggested Citation

  • Christian Calmès & Ying Liu, 2005. "Financial Structure Change and Banking Income: a Canada-U.S. Comparison," RePAd Working Paper Series UQO-DSA-wp0302005, Département des sciences administratives, UQO.
  • Handle: RePEc:pqs:wpaper:0302005
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    File URL: http://www.repad.org/ca/qc/uq/uqo/dsa/div011204.pdf
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Rajan, Raghuram G & Zingales, Luigi, 2003. "Banks and Markets: the Changing Character of European Finance," CEPR Discussion Papers 3865, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    2. Christian Calmès, 2004. "Regulatory Changes and Financial Structure: The Case of Canada," Swiss Journal of Economics and Statistics (SJES), Swiss Society of Economics and Statistics (SSES), vol. 140(I), pages 1-35, March.
    3. G. Dionne & T. M. Harchaoui, 2002. "Banks’ Capital, Securitization and Credit Risk : An Empirical Evidence for Canada," THEMA Working Papers 2002-33, THEMA (THéorie Economique, Modélisation et Applications), Université de Cergy-Pontoise.
    4. John H. Boyd & Mark Gertler, 1994. "Are banks dead? Or are the reports greatly exaggerated?," Quarterly Review, Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis, issue Sum, pages 2-23.
    5. Joel F. Houston & Kevin J. Stiroh, 2006. "Three decades of financial sector risk," Staff Reports 248, Federal Reserve Bank of New York.
    6. Clark, Jeffrey A & Siems, Thomas F, 2002. "X-Efficiency in Banking: Looking beyond the Balance Sheet," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 34(4), pages 987-1013, November.
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    Citations

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    Cited by:

    1. Christian Calm¨¨s & Raymond Th¨¦oret, 2013. "Is the Canadian Banking System Really ¡°Stronger¡± than the U.S. One?," Review of Economics & Finance, Better Advances Press, Canada, vol. 3, pages 1-18, November.
    2. Christian Calmès & Raymond Théoret, 2013. "The change in banks' product mix, diversification and performance: An application of multivariate GARCH to Canadian data," RePAd Working Paper Series UQO-DSA-wp012013, Département des sciences administratives, UQO.
    3. Calmès, Christian & Théoret, Raymond, 2014. "Bank systemic risk and macroeconomic shocks: Canadian and U.S. evidence," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 40(C), pages 388-402.
    4. Christian Calm¨¨s & Raymond Th¨¦oret, 2016. "The Asymmetric Impact of Portfolio Mix on Bank Performance over the Business Cycle: U.S. and Canadian Evidence," Review of Economics & Finance, Better Advances Press, Canada, vol. 6, pages 57-74, February.
    5. repec:kap:iaecre:v:19:y:2013:i:3:p:233-247 is not listed on IDEAS
    6. Robert Andersen & M. McIvor, 2013. "GINI Country Report: Growing Inequalities and their Impacts in Canada," GINI Country Reports canada, AIAS, Amsterdam Institute for Advanced Labour Studies.
    7. Christian Calmès & Raymond Théoret, 2012. "Bank systemic risk and the business cycle: Canadian and U.S. evidence," RePAd Working Paper Series UQO-DSA-wp022012, Département des sciences administratives, UQO.
    8. Dinamona, Didelle, 2010. "Sensibilité des banques aux chocs macroéconomiques : La diversification apporte-t-elle toujours des gains? Cas des banques canadiennes," L'Actualité Economique, Société Canadienne de Science Economique, vol. 86(1), pages 79-107, mars.
    9. Christian Calmès & Raymond Théoret, 2009. "Off-Balance-Sheet Activities and the Shadow Banking System: An Application of the Hausman Test with Higher Moments Instruments," RePAd Working Paper Series UQO-DSA-wp042009, Département des sciences administratives, UQO.
    10. Meg Adachi-Sato & Chaiporn Vithessonthi, 2016. "Bank Systemic Risk and Corporate Investment," PIER Discussion Papers 17., Puey Ungphakorn Institute for Economic Research, revised Jan 2016.
    11. Nguyen, James, 2012. "The relationship between net interest margin and noninterest income using a system estimation approach," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 36(9), pages 2429-2437.
    12. Christian Calmès & Raymond Théoret, 2011. "Bank systemic risk and the business cycle: An empirical investigation using Canadian data," RePAd Working Paper Series UQO-DSA-wp322011, Département des sciences administratives, UQO.
    13. Christian Calmès & Raymond Théoret, 2013. "Is the Canadian banking system really “stronger” than the U.S. one?," RePAd Working Paper Series UQO-DSA-wp022013, Département des sciences administratives, UQO.
    14. Calmès, Christian & Théoret, Raymond, 2010. "The impact of off-balance-sheet activities on banks returns: An application of the ARCH-M to Canadian data," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 34(7), pages 1719-1728, July.
    15. Philippe Bergevin & Christian Calmès & Raymond Théoret, 2013. "Time-Varying Leverage and Basel III: A Look at Canadian Evidence," International Advances in Economic Research, Springer;International Atlantic Economic Society, vol. 19(3), pages 233-247, August.
    16. Calmès, Christian & Théoret, Raymond, 2013. "Market-oriented banking, financial stability and macro-prudential indicators of leverage," Journal of International Financial Markets, Institutions and Money, Elsevier, vol. 27(C), pages 13-34.
    17. Mariarosa Borroni & Simone Rossi, 2017. "Does revenue diversification still matter in banking? Evidence from some European countries," DISCE - Quaderni del Dipartimento di Scienze Economiche e Sociali dises1723, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Dipartimenti e Istituti di Scienze Economiche (DISCE).

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Regulatory changes; indirect finance; noninterest income; diversification;

    JEL classification:

    • G20 - Financial Economics - - Financial Institutions and Services - - - General
    • G21 - Financial Economics - - Financial Institutions and Services - - - Banks; Other Depository Institutions; Micro Finance Institutions; Mortgages

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