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Income diversification in the German banking industry

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  • Busch, Ramona
  • Kick, Thomas

Abstract

In the last few years it has been possible to observe decreasing interest margins for German universal banks. At the same time, institutions increasingly moved part of their business from interest to fee-earning activities. This study analyzes the determinants of non-interest income and its impact on financial performance and the risk profile of German banks between 1995 and 2007. We find empirical evidence that for all German universal banks risk-adjusted returns on equity and total assets are positively affected by higher fee income activities. Additionally, for commercial banks we show that a strong engagement in fee-generating activities goes along with higher risk. In order to analyze possible cross-subsidization effects between interest and fee business we also examine how banks' expansion in fee-based services has affected their interest margin. For savings and commercial banks we find that institutions with a strong focus on fee business charge lower interest margins when credit risk is controlled.

Suggested Citation

  • Busch, Ramona & Kick, Thomas, 2009. "Income diversification in the German banking industry," Discussion Paper Series 2: Banking and Financial Studies 2009,09, Deutsche Bundesbank.
  • Handle: RePEc:zbw:bubdp2:200909
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    Citations

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    Cited by:

    1. Christian Calmès & Raymond Théoret, 2013. "The change in banks' product mix, diversification and performance: An application of multivariate GARCH to Canadian data," RePAd Working Paper Series UQO-DSA-wp012013, Département des sciences administratives, UQO.
    2. repec:eee:finsta:v:29:y:2017:i:c:p:36-56 is not listed on IDEAS
    3. Ashraf, Dawood & Rizwan, Muhammad Suhail & L’Huillier, Barbara, 2016. "A net stable funding ratio for Islamic banks and its impact on financial stability: An international investigation," Journal of Financial Stability, Elsevier, vol. 25(C), pages 47-57.
    4. vithyea, You, 2014. "The linkage between bank net interest margins and non-interest income : The case of the Cambodian Banking industry," MPRA Paper 58230, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    5. Li, Li & Zhang, Yu, 2013. "Are there diversification benefits of increasing noninterest income in the Chinese banking industry?," Journal of Empirical Finance, Elsevier, vol. 24(C), pages 151-165.
    6. Köhler, Matthias, 2014. "Does non-interest income make banks more risky? Retail- versus investment-oriented banks," Review of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 23(4), pages 182-193.
    7. Christian Calmès & Raymond Théoret, 2009. "Off-Balance-Sheet Activities and the Shadow Banking System: An Application of the Hausman Test with Higher Moments Instruments," RePAd Working Paper Series UQO-DSA-wp042009, Département des sciences administratives, UQO.
    8. repec:asi:aeafrj:2017:p:644-655 is not listed on IDEAS
    9. Köhler, Matthias, 2012. "Which banks are more risky? The impact of loan growth and business model on bank risk-taking," Discussion Papers 33/2012, Deutsche Bundesbank.
    10. Entrop, Oliver & Memmel, Christoph & Ruprecht, Benedikt & Wilkens, Marco, 2015. "Determinants of bank interest margins: Impact of maturity transformation," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 54(C), pages 1-19.
    11. Calmès, Christian & Théoret, Raymond, 2010. "The impact of off-balance-sheet activities on banks returns: An application of the ARCH-M to Canadian data," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 34(7), pages 1719-1728, July.
    12. Köhler, Matthias, 2013. "Does non-interest income make banks more risky? Retail- versus investment-oriented banks," Discussion Papers 17/2013, Deutsche Bundesbank.
    13. Ali Osman GURBUZ & Serhat YANIK & Yusuf AYTURK, 2013. "Income Diversification and Bank Performance: Evidence From Turkish Banking Sector," Journal of BRSA Banking and Financial Markets, Banking Regulation and Supervision Agency, vol. 7(1), pages 9-29.
    14. Ashraf, Dawood & Ramady, Mohamed & Albinali, Khalid, 2016. "Financial fragility of banks, ownership structure and income diversification: Empirical evidence from the GCC region," Research in International Business and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 38(C), pages 56-68.
    15. repec:eee:riibaf:v:41:y:2017:i:c:p:260-279 is not listed on IDEAS

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Income diversification; interest income; fee income; interest margin; two-stage least squares estimator;

    JEL classification:

    • G11 - Financial Economics - - General Financial Markets - - - Portfolio Choice; Investment Decisions
    • G21 - Financial Economics - - Financial Institutions and Services - - - Banks; Other Depository Institutions; Micro Finance Institutions; Mortgages
    • G32 - Financial Economics - - Corporate Finance and Governance - - - Financing Policy; Financial Risk and Risk Management; Capital and Ownership Structure; Value of Firms; Goodwill

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