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Income diversification in the German banking industry

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  • Busch, Ramona
  • Kick, Thomas

Abstract

In the last few years it has been possible to observe decreasing interest margins for German universal banks. At the same time, institutions increasingly moved part of their business from interest to fee-earning activities. This study analyzes the determinants of non-interest income and its impact on financial performance and the risk profile of German banks between 1995 and 2007. We find empirical evidence that for all German universal banks risk-adjusted returns on equity and total assets are positively affected by higher fee income activities. Additionally, for commercial banks we show that a strong engagement in fee-generating activities goes along with higher risk. In order to analyze possible cross-subsidization effects between interest and fee business we also examine how banks' expansion in fee-based services has affected their interest margin. For savings and commercial banks we find that institutions with a strong focus on fee business charge lower interest margins when credit risk is controlled.

Suggested Citation

  • Busch, Ramona & Kick, Thomas, 2009. "Income diversification in the German banking industry," Discussion Paper Series 2: Banking and Financial Studies 2009,09, Deutsche Bundesbank.
  • Handle: RePEc:zbw:bubdp2:200909
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    Cited by:

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    2. Boubakri, Narjess & Mirzaei, Ali & Samet, Anis, 2017. "National culture and bank performance: Evidence from the recent financial crisis," Journal of Financial Stability, Elsevier, vol. 29(C), pages 36-56.
    3. Demeh Daradkah & Montaser Al-Sayyah, 2020. "The Effect of Financing and Non-Financing Income on Islamic Banks’ Risk: Evidence from Gulf Cooperation Council Countries," International Journal of Economics & Business Administration (IJEBA), International Journal of Economics & Business Administration (IJEBA), vol. 0(1), pages 180-192.
    4. Ashraf, Dawood & Rizwan, Muhammad Suhail & L’Huillier, Barbara, 2016. "A net stable funding ratio for Islamic banks and its impact on financial stability: An international investigation," Journal of Financial Stability, Elsevier, vol. 25(C), pages 47-57.
    5. Seungho Baek & Kwan Yong Lee & Jeong Wan Lee & Sunil Mohanty, 2018. "Diversification in Korean Banking Business: Is Non-interest Income a Financial Saviour?," Journal of Emerging Market Finance, Institute for Financial Management and Research, vol. 17(3_suppl), pages 299-326, December.
    6. Kok, Christoffer & Mirza, Harun & Pancaro, Cosimo, 2019. "Macro stress testing euro area banks’ fees and commissions," Journal of International Financial Markets, Institutions and Money, Elsevier, vol. 61(C), pages 97-119.
    7. vithyea, You, 2014. "The linkage between bank net interest margins and non-interest income : The case of the Cambodian Banking industry," MPRA Paper 58230, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    8. Li, Li & Zhang, Yu, 2013. "Are there diversification benefits of increasing noninterest income in the Chinese banking industry?," Journal of Empirical Finance, Elsevier, vol. 24(C), pages 151-165.
    9. Köhler, Matthias, 2014. "Does non-interest income make banks more risky? Retail- versus investment-oriented banks," Review of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 23(4), pages 182-193.
    10. Christian Calmès & Raymond Théoret, 2009. "Off-Balance-Sheet Activities and the Shadow Banking System: An Application of the Hausman Test with Higher Moments Instruments," RePAd Working Paper Series UQO-DSA-wp042009, Département des sciences administratives, UQO.
    11. Ekanayake E. M. N. N. & Wanamalie H. A., 2017. "Income Diversification and Bank Risk-Return Trade-Off: Evidence from an Emerging Economy," Asian Economic and Financial Review, Asian Economic and Social Society, vol. 7(7), pages 644-655, July.
    12. Köhler, Matthias, 2012. "Which banks are more risky? The impact of loan growth and business model on bank risk-taking," Discussion Papers 33/2012, Deutsche Bundesbank.
    13. Albaity, Mohamed & Mallek, Ray Saadaoui & Noman, Abu Hanifa Md., 2019. "Competition and bank stability in the MENA region: The moderating effect of Islamic versus conventional banks," Emerging Markets Review, Elsevier, vol. 38(C), pages 310-325.
    14. Entrop, Oliver & Memmel, Christoph & Ruprecht, Benedikt & Wilkens, Marco, 2015. "Determinants of bank interest margins: Impact of maturity transformation," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 54(C), pages 1-19.
    15. Calmès, Christian & Théoret, Raymond, 2010. "The impact of off-balance-sheet activities on banks returns: An application of the ARCH-M to Canadian data," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 34(7), pages 1719-1728, July.
    16. Köhler, Matthias, 2013. "Does non-interest income make banks more risky? Retail- versus investment-oriented banks," Discussion Papers 17/2013, Deutsche Bundesbank.
    17. Ali Osman GURBUZ & Serhat YANIK & Yusuf AYTURK, 2013. "Income Diversification and Bank Performance: Evidence From Turkish Banking Sector," Journal of BRSA Banking and Financial Markets, Banking Regulation and Supervision Agency, vol. 7(1), pages 9-29.
    18. Rayenda Brahmana & Maria Kontesa & Rachel Elfra Gilbert, 2018. "Income diversification and bank performance: evidence from malaysian banks," Economics Bulletin, AccessEcon, vol. 38(2), pages 799-809.
    19. Ashraf, Dawood & Ramady, Mohamed & Albinali, Khalid, 2016. "Financial fragility of banks, ownership structure and income diversification: Empirical evidence from the GCC region," Research in International Business and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 38(C), pages 56-68.
    20. Dwumfour, Richard Adjei, 2017. "Explaining banking stability in Sub-Saharan Africa," Research in International Business and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 41(C), pages 260-279.

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    More about this item

    Keywords

    Income diversification; interest income; fee income; interest margin; two-stage least squares estimator;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • G11 - Financial Economics - - General Financial Markets - - - Portfolio Choice; Investment Decisions
    • G21 - Financial Economics - - Financial Institutions and Services - - - Banks; Other Depository Institutions; Micro Finance Institutions; Mortgages
    • G32 - Financial Economics - - Corporate Finance and Governance - - - Financing Policy; Financial Risk and Risk Management; Capital and Ownership Structure; Value of Firms; Goodwill

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