Non-interest income and total income stability
Banks can differ markedly in their sources of income. Some focus on business lending, some on household lending, and some on fee-earning activities. Increasingly, however, most banks are diversifying into fee-earning activities. Such diversification is either justified (by the bank) or welcomed (by commentators), or both, as reducing the bank's exposure to risk. Diversification across various sources of earnings is welcomed for, it is claimed, diversification reduces risk. Whether it does of course depends on how independent of each other the various earnings sources are. Traditionally fee income has been very stable; but, also traditionally, it has been a small part of the earnings stream of most banks. Has non-interest income remained stable, or at least uncorrelated with interest income, as banks have increased its importance in their earnings? This paper examines the variability of interest and non-interest income, and their correlation, for the banking systems of EU countries for the years 1994-98. It is found that the increased importance of non-interest income did, for most but not all categories of bank, stabilise profits in the European banking industry in those years. It is not, however, invariably more stable than interest income.
|Date of creation:||Aug 2003|
|Date of revision:|
|Contact details of provider:|| Postal: Bank of England, Threadneedle Street, London, EC2R 8AH|
Phone: +44 (0)171 601 4030
Fax: +44 (0)171 601 5196
Web page: http://www.bankofengland.co.uk/
More information through EDIRC
References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Eisenbeis, Robert A & Harris, Robert S & Lakonishok, Josef, 1984. " Benefits of Bank Diversification: The Evidence from Shareholder Returns," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 39(3), pages 881-92, July.
- Heidi Taylor Aggeler & Ron J. Feldman, 1998. "Record bank profitability: how, who and what does it mean?," Fedgazette, Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis, issue Apr.
- Mester, Loretta J., 1992.
"Traditional and nontraditional banking: An information-theoretic approach,"
Journal of Banking & Finance,
Elsevier, vol. 16(3), pages 545-566, June.
- Loretta J. Mester, 1990. "Traditional and nontraditional banking: an information-theoretic approach," Working Papers 90-3, Federal Reserve Bank of Philadelphia.
- Robert DeYoung & Karin P. Roland, 1999. "Product mix and earnings volatility at commercial banks: evidence from a degree of leverage model," Working Paper Series WP-99-6, Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago.
- Boyd, John H. & Graham, Stanley L. & Hewitt, R. Shawn, 1993. "Bank holding company mergers with nonbank financial firms: Effects on the risk of failure," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 17(1), pages 43-63, February.
- George G. Kaufman & Larry R. Mote, 1994. "Is banking a declining industry? A historical perspective," Economic Perspectives, Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago, issue May, pages 2-21.
- Simon H. Kwan, 1998.
"Securities activities by commercial banking firms' section 20 subsidiaries: risk, return, and diversification benefits,"
609, Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago.
- Simon Kwan, 1998. "Securities activities by commercial banking firms' Section 20 subsidiaries: risk, return and diversification benefits," Working Papers in Applied Economic Theory 98-10, Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco.
- Larry D. Wall & Alan K. Reichert & Sunil Mohanty, 1993. "Deregulation and the opportunities for commercial bank diversification," Economic Review, Federal Reserve Bank of Atlanta, issue Sep, pages 1-25.
- Rodney N. Johnson & David R. Meinster, 1974. "Bank Holding Companies: Diversification Opportunities in Nonbank Activities," Eastern Economic Journal, Eastern Economic Association, vol. 1(4), pages 316-323, October.
- Rebecca S. Demsetz & Philip E. Strahan, 1995. "Diversification, size, and risk at bank holding companies," Research Paper 9506, Federal Reserve Bank of New York.
- John H. Boyd & Stanley L. Graham, 1986. "Risk, regulation, and bank holding company expansion into nonbanking," Quarterly Review, Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis, issue Spr, pages 2-17.
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:boe:boeewp:198. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Digital Media Team)
If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.
If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.
If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.
Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.