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Training and Visit (T&V) Extension vs. Farmer field School: The Indonesian Experience


  • Budy Resosudarmo
  • Satoshi Yamazaki


For several decades the effective and efficient dissemination of new agricultural knowledge among farmers in developing countries has been problematic. Two major programs were implemented in Indonesia, namely The Training and Visit (T&V) Extension Program or The Massive Guidance (BIMAS) Program, from the mid 1960s until the end of the1980s, and the Farmer Field School (FFS) Program, during the 1990s. The main difference between these two programs is that, while farmers were instructed what to do under the T&V program, the FFS program encouraged and stimulated farmers to make their own decisions. This paper aims to discuss and compare the effectiveness of these two programs with reference to rice production in Indonesia. The findings suggest that, for regions where the level of development is still very low, implementing a T&V program instructing farmers what to do is probably more appropriate than an FFS. As for regions where agriculture is relatively developed, an effective FFS program seems more appropriate.

Suggested Citation

  • Budy Resosudarmo & Satoshi Yamazaki, 2011. "Training and Visit (T&V) Extension vs. Farmer field School: The Indonesian Experience," Departmental Working Papers 2011-01, The Australian National University, Arndt-Corden Department of Economics.
  • Handle: RePEc:pas:papers:2011-01

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Satoshi YAMAZAKI & Budy P. RESOSUDARMO, 2008. "Does Sending Farmers Back To School Have An Impact? Revisiting The Issue," The Developing Economies, Institute of Developing Economies, vol. 46(2), pages 135-150.
    2. Pinstrup-Andersen, Per & Pandya-Lorch, Rajul & Rosegrant, Mark W., 1999. "World food prospects," Food policy reports 9, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).
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    Cited by:

    1. Alexander Tsyplakov, 2014. "A mini-dictionary of English econometric terminology III (in Russian)," Quantile, Quantile, issue 12, pages 45-51, February.

    More about this item


    Food policy; agricultural economics and policy; development policy; public policy;

    JEL classification:

    • Q16 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Agriculture - - - R&D; Agricultural Technology; Biofuels; Agricultural Extension Services
    • Q18 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Agriculture - - - Agricultural Policy; Food Policy
    • O11 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Development - - - Macroeconomic Analyses of Economic Development
    • O33 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Innovation; Research and Development; Technological Change; Intellectual Property Rights - - - Technological Change: Choices and Consequences; Diffusion Processes

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