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Financial Distress and Employment: The Japanese Case in the 90s

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  • Kazuo Ogawa

Abstract

We examine quantitatively the extent to which financial distress in the 1990s affected employment behavior in Japan. Based on the firm-level panel data that include small firms, we estimate dynamic labor demand function, taking the impact of financial distress on employment into consideration. We find that the firm's ratio of debt to total asset exerts a significantly negative effect on employment of small firms. We also find that employment of small firms is sensitively affected by lending attitude of financial institutions.

Suggested Citation

  • Kazuo Ogawa, 2003. "Financial Distress and Employment: The Japanese Case in the 90s," NBER Working Papers 9646, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  • Handle: RePEc:nbr:nberwo:9646 Note: EFG LS ME
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    1. Ogawa, Kazuo & Suzuki, Kazuyuki, 1998. "Land Value and Corporate Investment: Evidence from Japanese Panel Data," Journal of the Japanese and International Economies, Elsevier, vol. 12(3), pages 232-249, September.
    2. N. Berger, Allen & F. Udell, Gregory, 1998. "The economics of small business finance: The roles of private equity and debt markets in the financial growth cycle," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 22(6-8), pages 613-673, August.
    3. Nickell, Stephen & Nicolitsas, Daphne, 1999. "How does financial pressure affect firms?," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 43(8), pages 1435-1456, August.
    4. Richard Cantor, 1990. "Effects of leverage on corporate investment and hiring decisions," Quarterly Review, Federal Reserve Bank of New York, issue Sum, pages 31-41.
    5. Masahiko Aoki, 2013. "The Contingent Governance Of Teams: Analysis Of Institutional Complementarity," Chapters,in: Comparative Institutional Analysis, chapter 14, pages 230-249 Edward Elgar Publishing.
    6. Myers, Stewart C., 1977. "Determinants of corporate borrowing," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 5(2), pages 147-175, November.
    7. Ogawa, Kazuo & Kitasaka, Shin-ichi & Yamaoka, Hiroshi & Iwata, Yasuharu, 1996. "Borrowing Constraints and the Role of Land Asset in Japanese Corporate Investment Decision," Journal of the Japanese and International Economies, Elsevier, vol. 10(2), pages 122-149, June.
    8. Kazuo Ogawa, 2003. "Financial Distress and Corporate Investment: The Japanese Case in the 90s," ISER Discussion Paper 0584, Institute of Social and Economic Research, Osaka University.
    9. Ogawa, K. & Kitasaka, S.-I., 2000. "Bank Lending in Japan: its Determinants and Macroeconomic Implications," ISER Discussion Paper 0505, Institute of Social and Economic Research, Osaka University.
    10. Sharpe, Steven A, 1994. "Financial Market Imperfections, Firm Leverage, and the Cyclicality of Employment," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 84(4), pages 1060-1074, September.
    11. Gertler, Mark & Gilchrist, Simon, 1993. " The Role of Credit Market Imperfections in the Monetary Transmission Mechanism: Arguments and Evidence," Scandinavian Journal of Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 95(1), pages 43-64.
    12. Gibson, Michael S., 1997. "More Evidence on the Link between Bank Health and Investment in Japan," Journal of the Japanese and International Economies, Elsevier, vol. 11(3), pages 296-310, September.
    13. Charles W. Calomiris & Athanasios Orphanides & Steven A. Sharpe, 1994. "Leverage as a state variable for employment, inventory accumulation, and fixed investment," Finance and Economics Discussion Series 94-24, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
    14. Manuel Arellano & Stephen Bond, 1991. "Some Tests of Specification for Panel Data: Monte Carlo Evidence and an Application to Employment Equations," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 58(2), pages 277-297.
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    Cited by:

    1. Ignacio Hernando & Carmen Martínez-Carrascal, 2003. "The impact of financial variables on firms' real decisions: evidence from Spanish firm-level data," Working Papers 0319, Banco de España;Working Papers Homepage.
    2. Ignacio Hernando & Carmen Martínez-Carrascal, 2005. "The impact of financial variables on firms’ real decisions: evidence from Spanish firm-level data," BIS Papers chapters,in: Bank for International Settlements (ed.), Investigating the relationship between the financial and real economy, volume 22, pages 40-63 Bank for International Settlements.
    3. Kazuo Ogawa, 2004. "Debt, R&D Investment and Technological Progress: A Panel Study of Japanese Manufacturing Firms in the 90s," ISER Discussion Paper 0607, Institute of Social and Economic Research, Osaka University.
    4. Martti Randveer & Lenno Uuskula & Liina Kulu, 2012. "The impact of private debt on economic growth," Bank of Estonia Working Papers wp2011-10, Bank of Estonia, revised 05 Jan 2012.
    5. Agnese, Pablo & Sala, Hector, 2009. "The fading 1990s in Japan: Driving forces behind the unemployment upsurge," International Review of Economics & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 18(3), pages 428-439, June.
    6. Andrew Benito & Ignacio Hernando, 2003. "Labour demand, flexible contracts and financial factors: new evidence from Spain," Working Papers 0312, Banco de España;Working Papers Homepage.
    7. Hernando, Ignacio & Martínez-Carrascal, Carmen, 2008. "The impact of financial variables on firms' real decisions: Evidence from Spanish firm-level data," Journal of Macroeconomics, Elsevier, vol. 30(1), pages 543-561, March.
    8. Se-Jik Kim, 2003. "Macro Effects of Corporate Restructuring in Japan," IMF Working Papers 03/203, International Monetary Fund.
    9. Adam Posen, 2003. "It Takes More Than a Bubble to Become Japan," RBA Annual Conference Volume,in: Anthony Richards & Tim Robinson (ed.), Asset Prices and Monetary Policy Reserve Bank of Australia.
    10. ARIGA Kenn & KAMBAYASHI Ryo, 2009. "Employment and Wage Adjustments at Firms under Distress in Japan: An analysis based upon a survey," Discussion papers 09042, Research Institute of Economy, Trade and Industry (RIETI).
    11. Ogawa, Kazuo & Wan, Junmin, 2007. "Household debt and consumption: A quantitative analysis based on household micro data for Japan," Journal of Housing Economics, Elsevier, vol. 16(2), pages 127-142, June.
    12. Naomi N. Griffin, 2005. "Labor Adjustment, Productivity and Output Volatility: An Evaluation of Japan's Employment Adjustment Subsidy: Working Paper 2005-10," Working Papers 17567, Congressional Budget Office.
    13. Kenn Ariga & Ryo Kambayashi, 2009. "Employment and Wage Adjustments at Firms under Distress in Japan: An Analysis Based upon a Survey," KIER Working Papers 668, Kyoto University, Institute of Economic Research.
    14. Takeo Hoshi & Anil K. Kashyap, 2004. "Japan's Financial Crisis and Economic Stagnation," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 18(1), pages 3-26, Winter.
    15. Erdem Basci & Yusuf Soner Baskaya & Mustafa Kilinc, 2011. "Financial Shocks and Industrial Employment," Working Papers 1112, Research and Monetary Policy Department, Central Bank of the Republic of Turkey.
    16. Ariga, Kenn & Kambayashi, Ryo, 2010. "Employment and wage adjustments at firms under distress in Japan: An analysis based upon a survey," Journal of the Japanese and International Economies, Elsevier, vol. 24(2), pages 213-235, June.
    17. Li, Zhaohua & Yamada, Takeshi, 2015. "Political and economic incentives of government in partial privatization," Journal of Corporate Finance, Elsevier, vol. 32(C), pages 169-189.

    More about this item

    JEL classification:

    • E5 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Monetary Policy, Central Banking, and the Supply of Money and Credit
    • J2 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demand and Supply of Labor

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