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Implied Exchange Rate Distributions: Evidence from OTC Option Markets

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  • Jose M. Campa
  • P.H. Kevin Chang
  • Robert L. Reider

Abstract

This paper uses a rich new data set of option prices on the dollar-mark, dollar-yen, and key EMS cross-rates to extract the entire risk-neutral probability density function (pdf) over horizons of one and three months. We compare three alternative smoothing methods---cubic splines, an implied binomial tree (trimmed and untrimmed), and a mixture of lognormals---for transforming option data into the pdf. Despite their methodological ifferences, the three approaches lead to a similar pdf distinct from the lognormal benchmark, and usually characterized by skewness and leptokurtosis. We then document a striking positive correlation between skewness in these pdfs and the spot rate. The stronger a currency the more expectations are skewed towards a further appreciation of that currency. We interpret this finding as a rejection that these exchange rates evolve as a martingale, or that they follow a credible target zone, explicit or implicit. Instead, this this positive correlation is consistent with target zones with endogenous realignment risk. We discuss two interpretations of our results on skewness: when a currency is stronger, the actual probability of further large appreciation is higher, or because of risk, such states are valued more highly.

Suggested Citation

  • Jose M. Campa & P.H. Kevin Chang & Robert L. Reider, 1997. "Implied Exchange Rate Distributions: Evidence from OTC Option Markets," NBER Working Papers 6179, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  • Handle: RePEc:nbr:nberwo:6179
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    Cited by:

    1. Ivanova, Vesela & Puigvert Gutiérrez, Josep Maria, 2014. "Interest rate forecasts, state price densities and risk premium from Euribor options," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 48(C), pages 210-223.
    2. Carr, Peter & Wu, Liuren, 2007. "Stochastic skew in currency options," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 86(1), pages 213-247, October.
    3. David Backus & Silverio Foresi & Liuren Wu, 2002. "Accouting for Biases in Black-Scholes," Finance 0207008, EconWPA.
    4. Josep Puigvert-Gutiérrez & Rupert Vincent-Humphreys, 2012. "A Quantitative Mirror on the Euribor Market Using Implied Probability Density Functions," Eurasian Economic Review, Springer;Eurasia Business and Economics Society, vol. 2(1), pages 1-31, June.
    5. Bødskov Andersen, Allan & Wagener, Tom, 2002. "Extracting risk neutral probability densities by fitting implied volatility smiles: some methodological points and an application to the 3M Euribor futures option prices," Working Paper Series 0198, European Central Bank.
    6. Brandt, Michael W. & Santa-Clara, Pedro, 2002. "Simulated likelihood estimation of diffusions with an application to exchange rate dynamics in incomplete markets," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 63(2), pages 161-210, February.
    7. Mc Manus, Des, 1999. "The Information Content of Interest Rate Futures Options," Staff Working Papers 99-15, Bank of Canada.
    8. Martin Cincibuch, 2002. "Distributions Implied by Exchange Traded Options: A Ghost’s Smile?," CERGE-EI Working Papers wp200, The Center for Economic Research and Graduate Education - Economics Institute, Prague.
    9. Aron Gereben, 2002. "Extracting market expectations from option prices: an application to over-the-counter New Zealand dollar options," Reserve Bank of New Zealand Discussion Paper Series DP2002/04, Reserve Bank of New Zealand.
    10. Steven A. Weinberg, 2001. "Interpreting the volatility smile: an examination of the information content of option prices," International Finance Discussion Papers 706, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
    11. Robert R Bliss & Nikolaos Panigirtzoglou, 2000. "Testing the stability of implied probability density functions," Bank of England working papers 114, Bank of England.
    12. Ribeiro de Castro, Claudia, 1999. "Inside and Outside the Band Exchange Rate Fluctuations for Brazil," Discussion Papers (IRES - Institut de Recherches Economiques et Sociales) 2000004, Université catholique de Louvain, Institut de Recherches Economiques et Sociales (IRES).
    13. Marie Briere, 2006. "Market Reactions to Central Bank Communication Policies :Reading Interest Rate Options Smiles," Working Papers CEB 38, ULB -- Universite Libre de Bruxelles.
    14. Vähämaa, Sami, 2004. "Option-implied asymmetries in bond market expectations around monetary policy actions of the ECB," Working Paper Series 315, European Central Bank.
    15. Li, Minqiang, 2008. "Price Deviations of S&P 500 Index Options from the Black-Scholes Formula Follow a Simple Pattern," MPRA Paper 11530, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    16. Bronka Rzepkowski, 2001. "Heterogeneous Expectations, Currency Options and the Euro / Dollar Exchange Rate," Working Papers 2001-03, CEPII research center.
    17. Bliss, Robert R. & Panigirtzoglou, Nikolaos, 2002. "Testing the stability of implied probability density functions," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 26(2-3), pages 381-422, March.
    18. Gustavo Abarca & Claudia Ramírez & José Gonzalo Rangel, 2012. "Capital Controls and Exchange Rate Expectations in Emerging Markets," Working Papers 2012-08, Banco de México.

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