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The Evolution of the Federal Reserve Swap Lines since 1962

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  • Michael D. Bordo
  • Owen F. Humpage
  • Anna J. Schwartz

Abstract

In this paper, we describe the evolution of the Federal Reserve’s swap lines from their inception in 1962 as a mechanism to forestall claims on U.S gold reserves under Bretton Woods to a means of extending emergency dollar liquidity during the Great Recession. We describe a number of consequences associated with swap operations. We argue, for example, that swaps calm crisis situations by both supplementing foreign countries’ dollar reserves and by signaling central-bank cooperation. We show how swaps exposed the Federal Reserve to conditionality and raised fears that they bypassed the Congressional appropriations process.

Suggested Citation

  • Michael D. Bordo & Owen F. Humpage & Anna J. Schwartz, 2014. "The Evolution of the Federal Reserve Swap Lines since 1962," NBER Working Papers 20755, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  • Handle: RePEc:nbr:nberwo:20755
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Aizenman, Joshua & Pasricha, Gurnain Kaur, 2010. "Selective swap arrangements and the global financial crisis: Analysis and interpretation," International Review of Economics & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 19(3), pages 353-365, June.
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    Blog mentions

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    1. Ten Years After Bear
      by Steve Cecchetti and Kim Schoenholtz in Money, Banking and Financial Markets on 2018-03-12 12:26:11

    Citations

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    Cited by:

    1. Benk, Szilard & Gillman, Max, 2020. "Granger predictability of oil prices after the Great Recession," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 101(C).
    2. Perry Mehrling, 2015. "Elasticity and Discipline in the Global Swap Network," Working Papers Series 27, Institute for New Economic Thinking.
    3. Emmanuel Carré & Laurent Le Maux, 2018. "Globalisation financière et Dollar Swap Lines : la Réserve fédérale et la Banque centrale européenne durant la crise de 2007-2009," Working Papers hal-01933930, HAL.
    4. Duca, John V., 2017. "The Great Depression versus the Great Recession in the U.S.: How fiscal, monetary, and financial polices compare," Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, Elsevier, vol. 81(C), pages 50-64.
    5. Michael D. Bordo & Robert N. McCauley, 2019. "Triffin: Dilemma or Myth?," IMF Economic Review, Palgrave Macmillan;International Monetary Fund, vol. 67(4), pages 824-851, December.
    6. Eguren-Martin, Fernando, 2020. "Dollar shortages and central bank swap lines," Bank of England working papers 879, Bank of England.
    7. D. Essers & E. Vincent, 2017. "The global financial safety net :In need of repair ?," Economic Review, National Bank of Belgium, issue ii, pages 87-112, september.
    8. Perry Mehrling, 2015. "Elasticity and Discipline in the Global Swap Network," International Journal of Political Economy, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 44(4), pages 311-324, October.
    9. Emmanuel Carré & Laurent Le Maux, 2018. "The Federal Reserve's Dollar Swap Lines and the European Central Bank during the global financial crisis of 2007-2009," Post-Print hal-02570211, HAL.
    10. Scheubel, Beatrice & Herrala, Risto & Stracca, Livio, 2016. "What do we know about the global financial safety net? Data, rationale and possible evolution," VfS Annual Conference 2016 (Augsburg): Demographic Change 145676, Verein für Socialpolitik / German Economic Association.
    11. Stracca, Livio & Scheubel, Beatrice, 2016. "What do we know about the global financial safety net? Rationale, data and possible evolution," Occasional Paper Series 177, European Central Bank.

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    More about this item

    JEL classification:

    • F3 - International Economics - - International Finance
    • N2 - Economic History - - Financial Markets and Institutions

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