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From the Great Moderation to the global crisis: Exchange market pressure in the 2000s

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  • Joshua Aizenman
  • Jaewoo Lee
  • Vladyslav Sushko

Abstract

This paper investigates the factors explaining exchange market pressures (EMP) and the hoarding and use of international reserves (IR) by emerging markets during the 2000s, as the Great Moderation turned to the 2008-9 global crisis and great recession. According to our results, both financial and trade factors played important roles, yet the relative magnitude of financial considerations dominated, both during the Great Moderation and during the crisis. The coefficient of gross short-term external debt quintuples during the onset of the crisis, and then gradually declines as we let the crisis window roll forward. Capital outflow (induced by global deleveraging) was the force behind the emerging markets EMP rise during the global financial crisis, with the emerging markets' stock markets themselves only playing a secondary role. In addition, emerging markets were greatly affected by the fall in commodity prices during the initial phase of the crisis, although the relative impact of trade factors remained virtually the same in magnitude during the financial crisis and the Great Moderation period that preceded it. We also study the association between several country-level indicators, as of 2007, and the EMP measure during the height of the crisis in 2008:Q4 in a cross sectional regression. We found that that richer EMs experienced greater EMP during the crisis. Greater FDI inflows prior to the crisis were associated with a lower crisis EMP, while greater portfolio debt inflows with a higher crisis EMP, and this effect is much larger than the mitigation effect associated with greater FDI inflows. We conclude with an analysis of the factors that account for the trade and financial exposure of emerging markets during the crisis, finding that pre-crisis financial and trade openness are significant predictors of the financial and trade shock during the crisis. The severity of the financial shock was further exacerbated by financial ties to the U.S., while the trade shock was more severe in EMs with a larger commodity export share.

Suggested Citation

  • Joshua Aizenman & Jaewoo Lee & Vladyslav Sushko, 2010. "From the Great Moderation to the global crisis: Exchange market pressure in the 2000s," NBER Working Papers 16447, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  • Handle: RePEc:nbr:nberwo:16447
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    Cited by:

    1. Sengupta, Rajeswari & Sen Gupta, Abhijit, 2013. "Policy Tradeoffs in an Open Economy and the Role of G-20 in Global Macroeconomic Policy Coordination," MPRA Paper 53948, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised 12 Jul 2013.
    2. Sen Gupta, Abhijit & Sengupta, Rajeswari, 2013. "Management of Capital Flows in India: 1990-2011," MPRA Paper 46217, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    3. Aizenman, Joshua & Binici, Mahir, 2016. "Exchange market pressure in OECD and emerging economies: Domestic vs. external factors and capital flows in the old and new normal," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 66(C), pages 65-87.
    4. Ozcelebi, Oguzhan, 2019. "Assessment of asymmetric effects on exchange market pressure: Empirical evidence from emerging countries," The North American Journal of Economics and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 48(C), pages 498-513.
    5. Feldkircher, Martin, 2014. "The determinants of vulnerability to the global financial crisis 2008 to 2009: Credit growth and other sources of risk," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 43(C), pages 19-49.
    6. Andrew J. Filardo & Pierre L. Siklos, 2016. "Prolonged Reserves Accumulation, Credit Booms, Asset Prices and Monetary Policy in Asia," Emerging Markets Finance and Trade, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 52(2), pages 364-381, February.
    7. Feldkircher, Martin & Horvath, Roman & Rusnak, Marek, 2014. "Exchange market pressures during the financial crisis: A Bayesian model averaging evidence," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 40(C), pages 21-41.
    8. Siklos, Pierre L., 2011. "Emerging market yield spreads: Domestic, external determinants, and volatility spillovers," Global Finance Journal, Elsevier, vol. 22(2), pages 83-100.
    9. Aleksandr V. Gevorkyan, 2019. "Exchange market pressure and primary commodity – exporting emerging markets," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 51(22), pages 2390-2412, May.
    10. repec:onb:oenbfi:y:2012:i:2:b:3 is not listed on IDEAS
    11. Sen Gupta, Abhijit & Sengupta, Rajeswari, 2014. "Capital Flows and Capital Account Management in Selected Asian Economies," MPRA Paper 58982, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    12. Hossfeld, Oliver & Pramor, Marcus, 2018. "Global liquidity and exchange market pressure in emerging market economies," Discussion Papers 05/2018, Deutsche Bundesbank.
    13. Mouridi M. HAMIDOU & Joseph K. Mung'atu & George O. Orwa, 2018. "Return Levels Approach and Periods of Currency Crises," Journal of Mathematics Research, Canadian Center of Science and Education, vol. 10(3), pages 77-96, June.
    14. Ifedolapo Olabisi Olanipekun & Godwin Olasehinde-Williams & Hasan Güngör, 2019. "Impact of Economic Policy Uncertainty on Exchange Market Pressure," SAGE Open, , vol. 9(3), pages 21582440198, September.
    15. Robert Dixon & Zhichao Zhang & Yang Dai, 2016. "Exchange Rate Flexibility in China: Measurement, Regime Shifts and Driving Forces of Change," Review of International Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 24(5), pages 875-892, November.
    16. Heinz, Frigyes Ferdinand & Rusinova, Desislava, 2015. "An alternative view of exchange market pressure episodes in emerging Europe: an analysis using Extreme Value Theory (EVT)," Working Paper Series 1818, European Central Bank.
    17. Jesús Crespo Cuaresma & Martin Feldkircher, 2012. "Drivers of Output Loss during the 2008–09 Crisis: A Focus on Emerging Europe," Focus on European Economic Integration, Oesterreichische Nationalbank (Austrian Central Bank), issue 2, pages 46-64.

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    More about this item

    JEL classification:

    • F15 - International Economics - - Trade - - - Economic Integration
    • F21 - International Economics - - International Factor Movements and International Business - - - International Investment; Long-Term Capital Movements
    • F31 - International Economics - - International Finance - - - Foreign Exchange
    • F32 - International Economics - - International Finance - - - Current Account Adjustment; Short-term Capital Movements

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