Who Benefits from Tax-Advantaged Employee Benefits?: Evidence from University Parking
We use university parking permits to study how firms and employees split the value of employee benefit tax subsidies. Starting in 1998, the IRS allowed employees to pay for parking passes with pre-tax income. This subsidized the parking pass purchases of faculty and staff, but did not affect students. We show that the typical university raised its parking rates by 8-10% extra when it implemented a pre-tax payment system, but that this increase was the same for those affected by the tax change and those that were not affected. We conclude that university employees captured much of the new tax benefit, that faculty and staff that purchase permits benefited relative to those that do not purchase permits, and that students that purchase permits were made worse off relative to those that do not buy permits. We discuss what these results suggest about universities' objectives in setting their parking prices and about the demand for university parking.
|Date of creation:||Jun 2008|
|Date of revision:|
|Note:||LE LS PE|
|Contact details of provider:|| Postal: |
Web page: http://www.nber.org
More information through EDIRC
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Raymond Fisman & Edward Miguel, 2007. "Corruption, Norms, and Legal Enforcement: Evidence from Diplomatic Parking Tickets," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 115(6), pages 1020-1048, December.
- Amy Finkelstein, 2009.
"E-ZTAX: Tax Salience and Tax Rates,"
The Quarterly Journal of Economics,
MIT Press, vol. 124(3), pages 969-1010, August.
- Raj Chetty & Adam Looney & Kory Kroft, 2009.
"Salience and taxation: theory and evidence,"
Finance and Economics Discussion Series
2009-11, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
- Looney, Adam & Kroft, Kory & Chetty, Raj, 2009. "Salience and Taxation: Theory and Evidence," Scholarly Articles 9748525, Harvard University Department of Economics.
- Raj Chetty & Adam Looney & Kory Kroft, 2007. "Salience and Taxation: Theory and Evidence," NBER Working Papers 13330, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Susin, Scott, 2002. "Rent vouchers and the price of low-income housing," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 83(1), pages 109-152, January.
- Goolsbee, Austan, 1998.
"Does Government R&D Policy Mainly Benefit Scientists and Engineers?,"
American Economic Review,
American Economic Association, vol. 88(2), pages 298-302, May.
- Austan Goolsbee, 1998. "Does Government R&D Policy Mainly Benefit Scientists and Engineers?," NBER Working Papers 6532, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Anthony M. Marino & Ján Zábojník, 2008.
"A Rent Extraction View of Employee Discounts and Benefits,"
Journal of Labor Economics,
University of Chicago Press, vol. 26(3), pages 485-518, 07.
- Anthony Marino & Jan Zabojnik, 2006. "A Rent Extraction View of Employee Discounts and Benefits," Working Papers 1108, Queen's University, Department of Economics.
- Paul Oyer, 2005. "Salary or Benefits?," NBER Working Papers 11817, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- James Andreoni & A. Abigail Payne, 2003. "Do Government Grants to Private Charities Crowd Out Giving or Fund-raising?," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 93(3), pages 792-812, June.
- James M. Poterba, 1983.
"Tax Subsidies to Owner-occupied Housing: An Asset Market Approach,"
339, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Department of Economics.
- Poterba, James M, 1984. "Tax Subsidies to Owner-occupied Housing: An Asset-Market Approach," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, MIT Press, vol. 99(4), pages 729-52, November.
- Maria Arbatskaya & Kaushik Mukhopadhaya & Eric Rasmusen, 2007.
"The Parking Lot Problem,"
2007-04, Indiana University, Kelley School of Business, Department of Business Economics and Public Policy.
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:nbr:nberwo:14062. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: ()
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.