Improved Variance Estimation of Maximum Likelihood Estimators in Stable First-Order Dynamic Regression Models
In dynamic regression models conditional maximum likelihood (least-squares) coefficient and variance estimators are biased. From expansions of the coefficient variance and its estimator we obtain an approximation to the bias in variance es- timation and a bias corrected variance estimator, for both the standard and a bias corrected coefficient estimator. These enable a comparison of their mean squared errors to second order. We formally derive sufficient conditions for admissibility of these approximations. Illustrative numerical and simulation results are presented on bias reduction of coefficient and variance estimation for three relevant classes of ?rst-order autoregressive models, supplemented by e¤ects on mean squared er- rors, test size and size corrected power. These indicate that substantial biases do occur in moderately large samples, but these can be mitigated substantially and may also yield mean squared error reduction. Crude asymptotic tests are cursed by huge size distortions. However, operational bias corrections of both the esti- mates of coefficients and their estimated variance are shown to curb type I errors reasonably well.
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