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Deadly Anchor: Gender Bias under Russian Colonization of Kazakhstan, 1898-1908

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  • Gani Aldashev

    () (Center for Research in the Economics of Development, University of Namur)

  • Catherine Guirkinger

    () (Center for Research in the Economics of Development, University of Namur)

Abstract

We study the impact of a large-scale economic crisis on gender equality, using historical data from Kazakhstan in the late 19th – early 20th century. We focus on sex ratios (number of women per man) in Kazakh nomadic population between 1898 and 1908, in the midst of large-scale Russian in-migration into Kazakhstan that caused a sharp exogenous increase in land pressure. The resulting severe economic crisis made the nomadic organization of the Kazakh economy unsustainable and forced most Kazakh households into sedentary agriculture. Using a large novel dataset constructed from Russian colonial expedition materials, we document a low and worsening sex ratio (in particular, among poor households) between 1898 and 1908. The theoretical hypothesis that garners most support is that of excess female mortality in poorer households (especially among adults), driven by gender discrimination within households under the increasing pressure for scarce food resources.

Suggested Citation

  • Gani Aldashev & Catherine Guirkinger, 2011. "Deadly Anchor: Gender Bias under Russian Colonization of Kazakhstan, 1898-1908," Working Papers 1111, University of Namur, Department of Economics.
  • Handle: RePEc:nam:wpaper:1111
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    Cited by:

    1. Jean-Marie Baland & Pranab Bardhan & Sangharmitra Das & Dilip Mookherjee, 2009. "Forest Degradation in the Himalayas: Determinants and Policy Options," Working Papers 1002, University of Namur, Department of Economics.
    2. Francois Libois & Vincenzo Verardi, 2013. "Semiparametric fixed-effects estimator," Stata Journal, StataCorp LP, vol. 13(2), pages 329-336, June.
    3. Bove, Vincenzo & Sekeris, Petros, 2011. "Economic Determinants of Third-Party Intervention in Civil Conflict," NEPS Working Papers 4/2011, Network of European Peace Scientists.
    4. Paolo Casini & Lore Vandewalle & Zaki Wahhaj, 2017. "Public Good Provision in Indian Rural Areas: The Returns to Collective Action by Microfinance Groups," World Bank Economic Review, World Bank Group, vol. 31(1), pages 97-128.
    5. Lore Vandewalle, 2011. "The Role of Accountants in Indian Microfinance Groups: a Trade-Off Between Financial and Non-Financial Benefits," Working Papers 1118, University of Namur, Department of Economics.

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