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Productivity and Local Workforce Composition

Author

Listed:
  • David C. Maré

    () (Motu Economic and Public Policy Research)

  • Richard Fabling

    () (Reserve Bank of New Zealand)

Abstract

This chapter examines the link between firm productivity and the population composition of the areas in which firms operate. We combine annual firm-level microdata on production, covering a large proportion of the New Zealand economy, with area-level workforce characteristics obtained from population censuses. Overall, the results support the existence of agglomeration effects that operate through labour markets. We find evidence of productive spillovers from operating in areas with high-skilled workers, and with high population density. A high-skilled local workforce benefits firms in high-skilled and high-research and development industries, and small firms. The benefits of local population density are strongest for firms in dense areas, and for small and new firms. Firms providing local services are more productive in areas with high shares of migrants and new entrants, consistent with local demand factors.

Suggested Citation

  • David C. Maré & Richard Fabling, 2011. "Productivity and Local Workforce Composition," Working Papers 11_10, Motu Economic and Public Policy Research.
  • Handle: RePEc:mtu:wpaper:11_10
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    File URL: http://motu-www.motu.org.nz/wpapers/11_10.pdf
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Amiti, Mary & Pissarides, Christopher A., 2005. "Trade and industrial location with heterogeneous labor," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 67(2), pages 392-412, December.
    2. Henry G. Overman & Diego Puga, 2010. "Labor Pooling as a Source of Agglomeration: An Empirical Investigation," NBER Chapters,in: Agglomeration Economics, pages 133-150 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    3. Jennifer Hunt & Marjolaine Gauthier-Loiselle, 2010. "How Much Does Immigration Boost Innovation?," American Economic Journal: Macroeconomics, American Economic Association, vol. 2(2), pages 31-56, April.
    4. Duranton, Gilles & Puga, Diego, 2004. "Micro-foundations of urban agglomeration economies," Handbook of Regional and Urban Economics,in: J. V. Henderson & J. F. Thisse (ed.), Handbook of Regional and Urban Economics, edition 1, volume 4, chapter 48, pages 2063-2117 Elsevier.
    5. Richard Fabling, 2009. "A Rough Guide to New Zealand's Longitudinal Business Database," Global COE Hi-Stat Discussion Paper Series gd09-103, Institute of Economic Research, Hitotsubashi University.
    6. Lynne G. Zucker & Michael R. Darby, 2009. "Star Scientists, Innovation and Regional and National Immigration," Chapters,in: Entrepreneurship and Openness, chapter 6 Edward Elgar Publishing.
    7. Richard Fabling & David C Maré, 2015. "Production function estimation using New Zealand’s Longitudinal Business Database," Working Papers 15_15, Motu Economic and Public Policy Research.
    8. Edward L. Glaeser & Joshua D. Gottlieb, 2008. "The Economics of Place-Making Policies," Brookings Papers on Economic Activity, Economic Studies Program, The Brookings Institution, vol. 39(1 (Spring), pages 155-253.
    9. Richard Fabling, 2011. "Keeping it Together: Tracking Firms on New Zealand’s Longitudinal Business Database," Working Papers 11_01, Motu Economic and Public Policy Research.
    10. Papps, Kerry L. & Newell, James O., 2002. "Identifying Functional Labour Market Areas in New Zealand: A Reconnaissance Study Using Travel-to-Work Data," IZA Discussion Papers 443, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
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    Citations

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    Cited by:

    1. Richard Fabling & David C Maré, 2015. "Production function estimation using New Zealand’s Longitudinal Business Database," Working Papers 15_15, Motu Economic and Public Policy Research.
    2. Nathan, Max, 2013. "The Wider Economic Impacts of High-Skilled Migrants: A Survey of the Literature," IZA Discussion Papers 7653, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
    3. Max Nathan, 2014. "The wider economic impacts of high-skilled migrants: a survey of the literature for receiving countries," IZA Journal of Migration and Development, Springer;Forschungsinstitut zur Zukunft der Arbeit GmbH (IZA), vol. 3(1), pages 1-20, December.
    4. Nathan, Max, 2014. "Top Team Diversity and Business Performance: Latent Class Analysis for Firms and Cities," IZA Discussion Papers 8462, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
    5. Max Nathan & Neil Lee, 2013. "Cultural Diversity, Innovation, and Entrepreneurship: Firm-level Evidence from London," Economic Geography, Clark University, vol. 89(4), pages 367-394, October.
    6. Max Nathan, 2013. "Top Team Demographics, Innovation and Business Performance: Findings from English Firms and Cities 2008-9," SERC Discussion Papers 0129, Spatial Economics Research Centre, LSE.
    7. Nathan, Max, 2013. "Top team demographics, innovation and business performance: findings from English firms and cities 2008-9," LSE Research Online Documents on Economics 59250, London School of Economics and Political Science, LSE Library.
    8. Julie Fry, 2014. "Migration and Macroeconomic Performance in New Zealand: Theory and Evidence," Treasury Working Paper Series 14/10, New Zealand Treasury.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    productivity; agglomeration; workforce composition;

    JEL classification:

    • R1 - Urban, Rural, Regional, Real Estate, and Transportation Economics - - General Regional Economics
    • R3 - Urban, Rural, Regional, Real Estate, and Transportation Economics - - Real Estate Markets, Spatial Production Analysis, and Firm Location
    • D24 - Microeconomics - - Production and Organizations - - - Production; Cost; Capital; Capital, Total Factor, and Multifactor Productivity; Capacity

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