IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/
MyIDEAS: Log in (now much improved!) to save this paper

Sharing the burden: Empirical evidence on corporate tax incidence

  • Nadja Dwenger
  • Pia Rattenhuber
  • Viktor Steiner

This study assesses the burden of capital income tax passed onto labor through wage bargaining over economic rents, using estimations based on a unique pseudo-panel data set from Germany for the period 1998 to 2006. Tax return data cover the universe of corporations subject to corporate income tax, and labor market variables reflect the full record of employees covered by Social Security. We find that wage bargaining after a reduction in tax rates does not increase the wage bill if employment effects neglected by previous empirical studies are taken into account. Any increase in the total wage bill by higher wage rates set is equally compensated for by lower levels of employment. If adjustments in employment due to the increased user cost of capital are taken into account, a cut in corporate income taxes by 1 euro increases the wage bill by 0.47 euro. The identification of these effects comes from variation in the firm-specific average corporate tax rate across firms and over time resulting from two substantial tax reforms. The endogeneity of the firm-specific tax rate is controlled for by an instrumental variable approach. The instrument for the observed average tax rate is the counterfactual tax rate that a corporation would have faced in a particular period, had there been no endogenous change of its tax base, constructed using a detailed microsimulation model.

If you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.

File URL: http://www.tax.mpg.de/RePEc/mpi/wpaper/Tax-MPG-RPS-2011-14.pdf
File Function: Full text (original version)
Download Restriction: no

Paper provided by Max Planck Institute for Tax Law and Public Finance in its series Working Papers with number sharing_the_burden.

as
in new window

Length: 39 pages
Date of creation: Oct 2011
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:mpi:wpaper:sharing_the_burden
Contact details of provider: Postal:
Marstallplatz 1, 80539 München

Phone: +49 89 24246 0
Fax: +49 89 24246 501
Web page: http://www.tax.mpg.de/

More information through EDIRC

References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:

as in new window
  1. Arulampalam, Wiji & Devereux, Michael P. & Maffini, Giorgia, 2010. "The Direct Incidence of Corporate Income Tax on Wages," IZA Discussion Papers 5293, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  2. Harry J. Holzer & Lawrence F. Katz & Alan B. Krueger, 1988. "Job Queues and Wages: New Evidence on the Minimum Wage and Inter-Industry Wage Structure," NBER Working Papers 2561, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  3. John Shea, 1997. "Instrument Relevance in Multivariate Linear Models: A Simple Measure," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 79(2), pages 348-352, May.
  4. Hilderth, A.K. & Oswald, A.J., 1993. "Rent-Sharing and Wages: Evidence form Company and Establishment Panels," Economics Series Working Papers 99154, University of Oxford, Department of Economics.
  5. Oswald, Andrew J., 1993. "Efficient contracts are on the labour demand curve : Theory and facts," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 1(1), pages 85-113, June.
  6. David G. Blanchflower & Andrew J. Oswald & Peter Sanfey, 1992. "Wages, Profits and Rent-Sharing," NBER Working Papers 4222, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  7. Alan Auerbach, 2006. "Why have Corporate Tax Revenues Declined? Another Look," CESifo Working Paper Series 1785, CESifo Group Munich.
  8. Kevin A. Hassett & Aparna Mathur, 2006. "Taxes and Wages," AEI Economics Working Papers 49800, American Enterprise Institute.
  9. Stefan Bach & Hermann Buslei & Nadja Dwenger & Frank Fossen, 2008. "Dokumentation des Mikrosimulationsmodells BizTax zur Unternehmensbesteuerung in Deutschland," Data Documentation 29, DIW Berlin, German Institute for Economic Research.
  10. Fitzenberger, Bernd & Franz, Wolfgang, 1999. "Industry-Level Wage Bargaining: A Partial Rehabilitation--The German Experience," Scottish Journal of Political Economy, Scottish Economic Society, vol. 46(4), pages 437-57, September.
  11. Oswald, Andrew J, 1982. "The Microeconomic Theory of the Trade Union," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 92(367), pages 576-95, September.
  12. Joeri Gorter & Ruud de Mooij, 2001. "Capital income taxation in Europe; trends and trade-offs," CPB Special Publication 30, CPB Netherlands Bureau for Economic Policy Analysis.
  13. Krueger, Alan B & Summers, Lawrence H, 1988. "Efficiency Wages and the Inter-industry Wage Structure," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 56(2), pages 259-93, March.
  14. Addison, John T. & Schnabel, Claus & Wagner, Joachim, 2006. "The (Parlous) State of German Unions," IZA Discussion Papers 2000, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  15. Liu, Li & Altshuler, Rosanne, 2013. "Measuring The Burden Of The Corporate Income Tax Under Imperfect Competition," National Tax Journal, National Tax Association, vol. 66(1), pages 215-37, March.
  16. Frank Fossen & Stefan Bach, 2008. "Reforming the German Local Business Tax - Lessons from an International Comparison and a Microsimulation Analysis," FinanzArchiv: Public Finance Analysis, Mohr Siebeck, Tübingen, vol. 64(2), pages 245-272, June.
  17. Layard, Richard & Nickell, Stephen & Jackman, Richard, 2005. "Unemployment: Macroeconomic Performance and the Labour Market," OUP Catalogue, Oxford University Press, number 9780199279173, December.
  18. Jon Gruber & Emmanuel Saez, 2000. "The Elasticity of Taxable Income: Evidence and Implications," NBER Working Papers 7512, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  19. Rosanne Altshuler & Alan J. Auerbach & Michael Cooper & Matthew Knittel, 2008. "Understanding U.S. Corporate Tax Losses," NBER Working Papers 14405, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  20. Gaëtan Nicodème, 2002. "Sector and size effects on effective corporate taxation," European Economy - Economic Papers 2008 - 2015 175, Directorate General Economic and Financial Affairs (DG ECFIN), European Commission.
  21. Frank Blasch & Alfons Weichenrieder, 2006. "When Taxation Changes the Course of the Year – Fiscal Year Adjustments and the German Tax Reform 2000/2001," CESifo Working Paper Series 1861, CESifo Group Munich.
  22. Clemens Fuest & Andreas Peichl & Sebastian Siegloch, 2012. "Which Workers Bear the Burden of Corporate Taxation and Which Firms Can Pass It On? Micro Evidence from Germany," Working Papers 1216, Oxford University Centre for Business Taxation.
  23. McDonald, Robert L, 2001. "Cross-Border Investing with Tax Arbitrage: The Case of German Dividend Tax Credits," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 14(3), pages 617-57.
  24. Sebastian Krautheim & Tim Schmidt-Eisenlohr, 2011. "Wages and International Tax Competition," Working Papers 1123, Oxford University Centre for Business Taxation.
  25. repec:zbw:rwirep:0532 is not listed on IDEAS
  26. L Christofides & A Oswald, 1991. "Real Wage Determination and Rent-Sharing in Collective Bargaining Agreements," CEP Discussion Papers dp0042, Centre for Economic Performance, LSE.
  27. Alison Felix, 2007. "Passing the burden: corporate tax incidence in open economies," Regional Research Working Paper RRWP 07-01, Federal Reserve Bank of Kansas City.
  28. Jonathan Gruber, 1995. "The Incidence of Payroll Taxation: Evidence from Chile," NBER Working Papers 5053, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  29. Goerke, Laszlo, 1996. "Taxes on Payroll, Revenues and Profits in Three Models of Collective Bargaining," Scottish Journal of Political Economy, Scottish Economic Society, vol. 43(5), pages 549-65, November.
  30. William T. Dickens & Lawrence F. Katz, 1987. "Inter-Industry Wage Differences and Theories of Wage Determination," NBER Working Papers 2271, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  31. Nicodeme, Gaetan, 2001. "Computing effective corporate tax rates: comparisons and results," MPRA Paper 3808, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  32. Arnold C. Harberger, 1962. "The Incidence of the Corporation Income Tax," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 70, pages 215.
  33. Leslie G. Godfrey, 1999. "Instrument Relevance in Multivariate Linear Models," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 81(3), pages 550-552, August.
  34. Alison Felix, 2009. "Do state corporate income taxes reduce wages?," Economic Review, Federal Reserve Bank of Kansas City, issue Q II, pages 77-102.
  35. Pencavel, John, 1985. " Wages and Employment under Trade Unionism: Microeconomic Models and Macroeconomic Applications," Scandinavian Journal of Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 87(2), pages 197-225.
  36. Bradford, David F., 1978. "Factor prices may be constant but factor returns are not," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 1(3), pages 199-203.
Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

This item is not listed on Wikipedia, on a reading list or among the top items on IDEAS.

When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:mpi:wpaper:sharing_the_burden. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Hans Mueller)

If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.

If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.

If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

This information is provided to you by IDEAS at the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis using RePEc data.