IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/
MyIDEAS: Login to save this paper or follow this series

Does Non-farm Sector Employment reduce Rural Poverty and Vulnerability? Evidence from Vietnam and India

  • Katsushi S. Imai

    (Economics, School of Social Sciences, University of Manchester (UK) and RIEB, Kobe University (Japan))

  • Raghav Gaiha

    (Faculty of Management Studies, University of Delhi, India)

  • Ganesh Thapa

    (International Fund for Agricultural Development, Italy)

The present study examines whether employment in the rural non-farm sector (RNFE) has any poverty-reducing and/or vulnerability-reducing effect in Vietnam and India. To take account of sample selection bias associated with RNFE, we have applied treatment-effects model, a variant of Heckman sample selection model. It is found that log per capita consumption or log mean per capita expenditure (MPCE) significantly increased as a result of access to RNFE in Vietnam and India - which is consistent with poverty reducing role of accessing RNFE - with the aggregate effect larger in Vietnam than in India. Access to RNFE significantly reduces vulnerability too in both countries, implying that diversification of household activities into non-farm sector would reduce such risks. When we disaggregate non-farm sector employment by its type, we find that poverty and vulnerability reducing effects are much larger for sales, professionals, and clerks than for unskilled or manual employment in the non-farm sector in both countries. However, as even unskilled or manual non-farm employment significantly reduces poverty and vulnerability in India, this has considerable policy significance as the rural poor do not have easy access to skilled non-farm employment.

If you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.

File URL: http://www.rieb.kobe-u.ac.jp/academic/ra/dp/English/DP2012-25.pdf
File Function: Revised version, 2012
Download Restriction: no

Paper provided by Research Institute for Economics & Business Administration, Kobe University in its series Discussion Paper Series with number DP2012-25.

as
in new window

Length: 35 pages
Date of creation: Oct 2012
Date of revision: Nov 2012
Handle: RePEc:kob:dpaper:dp2012-25
Contact details of provider: Postal: 2-1 Rokkodai, Nada, Kobe 657-8501 JAPAN
Phone: +81-(0)78 803 7036
Fax: +81-(0)78 803 7059
Web page: http://www.rieb.kobe-u.ac.jp/index-e.html

More information through EDIRC

References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:

as in new window
  1. Raghav Gaiha & Nidhi Kaicker & Katsushi S. Imai & Ganesh Thapa, 2012. "Demand for Nutrients in India: An Analysis Based on the 50th, 61st and 66th Rounds of the NSS," Discussion Paper Series DP2012-14, Research Institute for Economics & Business Administration, Kobe University.
  2. Himanshu & Kunal Sen, 2014. "Revisiting the Great Indian Poverty Debate: Measurement, Patterns, and Determinants," Brooks World Poverty Institute Working Paper Series 20314, BWPI, The University of Manchester.
  3. Katsushi S. Imai & Samuel Kobina Annim & Veena S. Kulkarni & Raghav Gaiha, 2014. "Women’s Empowerment and Prevalence of Stunted and Underweight Children in Rural India," The School of Economics Discussion Paper Series 1409, Economics, The University of Manchester.
  4. Lanjouw, Jean O. & Lanjouw, Peter, 2001. "The rural non-farm sector: issues and evidence from developing countries," Agricultural Economics of Agricultural Economists, International Association of Agricultural Economists, vol. 26(1), October.
  5. de Janvry, Alain & Sadoulet, Elisabeth & Zhu, Nong, 2005. "The role of non-farm incomes in reducing rural poverty and inequality in China," CUDARE Working Paper Series 1001, University of California at Berkeley, Department of Agricultural and Resource Economics and Policy.
  6. Becker, G.S. & Murphy, K.M., 1991. "The Division of Labor, Coordination Costs, and Knowledge," University of Chicago - Economics Research Center 92-5, Chicago - Economics Research Center.
  7. Oded Galor & Omer Moav, 2004. "From Physical to Human Capital Accumulation: Inequality and the Process of Development," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 71(4), pages 1001-1026.
  8. Maoz, Yishay D & Moav, Omer, 1999. "Intergenerational Mobility and the Process of Development," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 109(458), pages 677-97, October.
  9. Heckman, James J, 1979. "Sample Selection Bias as a Specification Error," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 47(1), pages 153-61, January.
  10. World Bank, 2014. "World Development Indicators 2014," World Bank Publications, The World Bank, number 18237, September.
  11. Peter Lanjouw & Rinku Murgai & Nicholas Stern, 2013. "Nonfarm diversification, poverty, economic mobility, and income inequality: a case study in village India," Agricultural Economics, International Association of Agricultural Economists, vol. 44(4-5), pages 461-473, 07.
  12. Dasgupta, Partha, 1997. "Nutritional status, the capacity for work, and poverty traps," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 77(1), pages 5-37, March.
  13. Smith, Adam, 1776. "An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations," History of Economic Thought Books, McMaster University Archive for the History of Economic Thought, number smith1776.
  14. Dollar, David & Kraay, Aart, 2001. "Growth is good for the poor," Policy Research Working Paper Series 2587, The World Bank.
  15. Haggblade, Steven & Hazell, Peter & Reardon, Thomas, 2010. "The Rural Non-farm Economy: Prospects for Growth and Poverty Reduction," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 38(10), pages 1429-1441, October.
  16. Pasquale Scandizzo & Raghav Gaiha & Katsushi Imai, 2009. "Option Values, Switches, and Wages: An Analysis of the Employment Guarantee Scheme in India," Review of Development Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 13(2), pages 248-263, 05.
  17. Katsushi S. Imai & Samuel Kobina Annim & Veena S. Kulkarni & Raghav Gaiha, 2012. "Nutrition, Activity Intensity and Wage Linkages: Evidence from India," Discussion Paper Series DP2012-10, Research Institute for Economics & Business Administration, Kobe University, revised May 2014.
  18. Hoddinott, John & Quisumbing, Agnes, 2003. "Methods for microeconometric risk and vulnerability assessments," Social Protection Discussion Papers 29138, The World Bank.
  19. Md. Shafiul Azam & Katsushi S. Imai, 2009. "Vulnerability and Poverty in Bangladesh," ASARC Working Papers 2009-02, The Australian National University, Australia South Asia Research Centre.
  20. Thomas Reardon & J. Edward Taylor & Kostas Stamoulis & Peter Lanjouw & Arsenio Balisacan, 2000. "Effects of Non-Farm Employment on Rural Income Inequality in Developing Countries: An Investment Perspective," Journal of Agricultural Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 51(2), pages 266-288.
  21. Katsushi S. Imai, 2009. "Poverty, undernutrition and vulnerability in rural India: Role of rural public works and food for work programmes," The School of Economics Discussion Paper Series 0914, Economics, The University of Manchester.
  22. Dominique van de Walle & Dorothyjean Cratty, 2004. "Is the emerging non-farm market economy the route out of poverty in Vietnam?," The Economics of Transition, The European Bank for Reconstruction and Development, vol. 12(2), pages 237-274, 06.
  23. Kim, Sunwoong, 1989. "Labor Specialization and the Extent of the Market," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 97(3), pages 692-705, June.
  24. Bliss, Christopher & Stern, Nicholas, 1978. "Productivity, wages and nutrition : Part II: Some observations," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 5(4), pages 363-398, December.
  25. John Knight & Li Shi & Deng Quheng, 2010. "Education and the Poverty Trap in Rural China: Closing the Trap," Oxford Development Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 38(1), pages 1-24.
  26. Bliss, Christopher & Stern, Nicholas, 1978. "Productivity, wages and nutrition : Part I: the theory," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 5(4), pages 331-362, December.
  27. John Knight & Li Shi & Deng Quheng, 2009. "Education and the Poverty Trap in Rural China: Setting the Trap," Oxford Development Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 37(4), pages 311-332.
  28. Katsushi Imai & Samuel Kobina Annim & Veena S. Kulkarni & Raghav Gaiha, 2013. "Does Women's Empowerment Reduce Prevalence of Stunted and Underweight Children in Rural India?," Discussion Paper Series DP2013-33, Research Institute for Economics & Business Administration, Kobe University.
  29. Jha, Raghbendra & Gaiha, Raghav & Sharma, Anurag, 2009. "Calorie and Micronutrient Deprivation and Poverty Nutrition Traps in Rural India," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 37(5), pages 982-991, May.
  30. Gaiha, Raghav & Jha, Raghbendra & Kulkarni, Vani S (ed.), 2014. "Diets, Malnutrition, and Disease: The Indian Experience," OUP Catalogue, Oxford University Press, number 9780198099215, March.
  31. Dasgupta, Partha & Ray, Debraj, 1986. "Inequality as a Determinant of Malnutrition and Unemployment: Theory," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 96(384), pages 1011-34, December.
  32. Owusu, Victor & Abdulai, Awudu & Abdul-Rahman, Seini, 2011. "Non-farm work and food security among farm households in Northern Ghana," Food Policy, Elsevier, vol. 36(2), pages 108-118, April.
  33. Dasgupta, Partha & Ray, Debraj, 1987. "Inequality as a Determinant of Malnutrition and Unemployment: Policy," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 97(385), pages 177-88, March.
Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

This item is not listed on Wikipedia, on a reading list or among the top items on IDEAS.

When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:kob:dpaper:dp2012-25. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Office of Promoting Research Collaboration, Research Institute for Economics & Business Administration, Kobe University)

If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.

If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.

If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

This information is provided to you by IDEAS at the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis using RePEc data.