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Does Non-Farm Sector Employment Reduce Rural Poverty and Vulnerability? Evidence from Vietnam and India

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  • Katsushi S. Imai

    (School of Social Sciences, University of Manchester (UK) and RIEB, Kobe University (Japan))

  • Raghav Gaiha

    (Faculty of Management Studies, University of Delhi, India)

  • Ganesh Thapa

    (International Fund for Agricultural Development, Rome, Italy)

Abstract

The present study examines whether rural non-farm employment has any poverty and/or vulnerability-reducing effect in Vietnam and India. To take account of sample selection bias associated with it, we have applied treatment-effects model. It is found that log per capita consumption or log mean per capita expenditure significantly increased as a result of access to the rural non-farm employment in both Vietnam and India - which is consistent with its poverty reducing role of accessing - with the aggregate effect larger in Vietnam than in India. Access to the rural non-farm employment significantly reduces vulnerability too in both countries, implying that diversification of household activities into non-farm sector would reduce such risks. When we disaggregate non-farm sector employment by its type, we find that poverty and vulnerability reducing effects are much larger for sales, professionals, and clerks than for unskilled or manual employment in both countries. However, because even unskilled or manual non-farm employment significantly reduces poverty and vulnerability in India and poverty in some years in Vietnam, this has considerable policy significance as the rural poor do not have easy access to skilled non-farm employment.

Suggested Citation

  • Katsushi S. Imai & Raghav Gaiha & Ganesh Thapa, 2015. "Does Non-Farm Sector Employment Reduce Rural Poverty and Vulnerability? Evidence from Vietnam and India," Discussion Paper Series DP2015-01, Research Institute for Economics & Business Administration, Kobe University.
  • Handle: RePEc:kob:dpaper:dp2015-01
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    1. repec:spr:soinre:v:134:y:2017:i:1:d:10.1007_s11205-016-1419-x is not listed on IDEAS
    2. Zereyesus, Yacob A. & Embaye, Weldensie T. & Tsiboe, Francis & Amanor-Boadu, Vincent, 2017. "Implications of Non-Farm Work to Vulnerability to Food Poverty-Recent Evidence From Northern Ghana," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 91(C), pages 113-124.
    3. Azeem, Muhammad Masood & Mugera, Amin W. & Schilizzi, Steven, 2016. "Living on the edge: Household vulnerability to food-insecurity in the Punjab, Pakistan," Food Policy, Elsevier, vol. 64(C), pages 1-13.
    4. Jing You, 2014. "Dietary change, nutrient transition and food security in fast-growing China," Chapters,in: Handbook on Food, chapter 9, pages 204-245 Edward Elgar Publishing.
    5. Rodríguez-Pose, Andrés & Hardy, Daniel, 2015. "Addressing poverty and inequality in the rural economy from a global perspective," LSE Research Online Documents on Economics 63257, London School of Economics and Political Science, LSE Library.
    6. Rahman, Andaleeb, 2018. "Does off-farm income affect food security? Evidence from India," 2018 Annual Meeting, August 5-7, Washington, D.C. 273882, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association.
    7. Newman Carol & Kinghan Christina, 2015. "Economic transformation and the diversification of livelihoods in rural Viet Nam," WIDER Working Paper Series 064, World Institute for Development Economic Research (UNU-WIDER).
    8. Katsushi S. Imai & Bilal Malaeb, 2016. "Asia's Rural-urban Disparity in the Context of Growing Inequality," Discussion Paper Series DP2016-29, Research Institute for Economics & Business Administration, Kobe University.
    9. Dennis Wichelns, 2015. "Achieving Water and Food Security in 2050: Outlook, Policies, and Investments," Agriculture, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 5(2), pages 1-33, April.
    10. Dsouza, Alwin & Mishra, Ashok K. & Tripathi, Amarnath, 2018. "Improving Diet Quality through Off-Farm Work: Empirical Evidence from India," 2018 Annual Meeting, August 5-7, Washington, D.C. 274494, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association.
    11. Zereyesus, Yacob & Embaye, Weldensie & Tsiboe, Francis & Amanor-Boadu, Vincent, 2016. "Participation in non-farm work and vulnerability to food poverty of households in northern Ghana," 2016 Annual Meeting, July 31-August 2, Boston, Massachusetts 235741, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Poverty; Vulnerability; Non-farm sector; Treatment Effects Model; Vietnam; India;

    JEL classification:

    • C21 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Single Equation Models; Single Variables - - - Cross-Sectional Models; Spatial Models; Treatment Effect Models
    • C31 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Multiple or Simultaneous Equation Models; Multiple Variables - - - Cross-Sectional Models; Spatial Models; Treatment Effect Models; Quantile Regressions; Social Interaction Models
    • I32 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Welfare, Well-Being, and Poverty - - - Measurement and Analysis of Poverty
    • O15 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Development - - - Economic Development: Human Resources; Human Development; Income Distribution; Migration

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