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Vulnerability and poverty in Bangladesh

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  • Md. Shafiul Azam

    ()

  • Katsushi S. Imai

    ()

Abstract

This study estimates ex ante poverty and vulnerability of households in Bangladesh using Household Income and Expenditure Survey (HIES) data in 2005. Our results show that poverty is not same as vulnerability as a substantial share of those currently above the poverty line is highly vulnerable to poverty in the future. The study finds that agricultural households or those without education are likely to be the most vulnerable. The geographical diversity of vulnerability is considerable, for example, vulnerability in a coastal division, i.e., Chittagoan Division is almost double to that of Dhaka and almost four times higher than Khulna Division. It is suggested that ex ante measures to prevent households from becoming poor as well as ex post measures to alleviate those already in poverty should be combined in evaluating poverty. In designing policies one should take note of the diverse nature of poverty and vulnerability. For the chronically poor who lack economic assets, priority should be given to reduction of consumption fluctuations and building up assets through a combination of protective and promotional programmes. Access to financial services, for example, through micro credit programmes, might help poor households build up assets as it smoothes income and consumption, enables the purchase of inputs and productive assets, and provides protection against crises. On the other hand, the transient poor and high vulnerable non-poor households are most likely to benefit from combination of prevention, protection, and promotion which would give them a more secure base to diversify their activity into higher-return, higher risk activities. [Working Paper No. 141]

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  • Md. Shafiul Azam & Katsushi S. Imai, 2010. "Vulnerability and poverty in Bangladesh," Working Papers id:2675, eSocialSciences.
  • Handle: RePEc:ess:wpaper:id:2675
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    Cited by:

    1. Katsushi S. Imai & Raghav Gaiha & Ganesh Thapa & Samuel Kobina Annim, 2013. "Financial Crisis In Asia: Its Genesis, Severity And Impact On Poverty And Hunger," Journal of International Development, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 25(8), pages 1105-1116, November.
    2. Zereyesus, Yacob & Tsiboe, Francis & Embaye, Weldensie, 2016. "The Effect of Shocks and Remittances on Household’s Vulnerability to Food Poverty: Evidence from Bangladesh," 2016 Annual Meeting, July 31-August 2, 2016, Boston, Massachusetts 236199, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association.
    3. José Roche, 2013. "Monitoring Progress in Child Poverty Reduction: Methodological Insights and Illustration to the Case Study of Bangladesh," Social Indicators Research: An International and Interdisciplinary Journal for Quality-of-Life Measurement, Springer, vol. 112(2), pages 363-390, June.
    4. Novignon, Jacob, 2010. "Estimating household vulnerability to poverty from cross section data: an empirical evidence from Ghana," MPRA Paper 39900, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    5. Celidoni, Martina, 2011. "Vulnerability to poverty: An empirical comparison of alternative measures," MPRA Paper 33002, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    6. Raghbendra Jha & Katsushi S. Imai & Raghav Gaiha, 2008. "Poverty, Undernutrition and Vulnerability in Rural India: Public Works versus Food Subsidy," ASARC Working Papers 2008-08, The Australian National University, Australia South Asia Research Centre.
    7. Katsushi S. Imai & Md. Faruq Hasan & Eleonora Porreca, 2015. "Do Agricultural Extension Programmes Reduce Poverty and Vulnerability? Farm Size, Agricultural Productivity and Poverty in Uganda," Discussion Paper Series DP2015-06, Research Institute for Economics & Business Administration, Kobe University.
    8. Sabina Alkire and José Manuel Roche, 2011. "Beyond Headcount: Measures that Reflect the Breadth and Components of Child Poverty," OPHI Working Papers ophiwp045, Queen Elizabeth House, University of Oxford.
    9. Martina Celidoni, 2013. "Vulnerability to poverty: an empirical comparison of alternative measures," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 45(12), pages 1493-1506, April.
    10. Raghbendra Jha & Hari K. Nagarajan & Woojin Kang & Kailash C. Pradhan, 2014. "Panchayats and Household Vulnerability in Rural India," ASARC Working Papers 2014-08, The Australian National University, Australia South Asia Research Centre.
    11. Katsushi S. Imai, 2011. "Poverty, undernutrition and vulnerability in rural India: role of rural public works and food for work programmes," International Review of Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 25(6), pages 669-691, November.
    12. Zereyesus, Yacob & Embaye, Weldensie & Tsiboe, Francis & Amanor-Boadu, Vincent, 2016. "Participation in non-farm work and vulnerability to food poverty of households in northern Ghana," 2016 Annual Meeting, July 31-August 2, 2016, Boston, Massachusetts 235741, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association.
    13. Imai, Katsushi S. & Gaiha, Raghav & Thapa, Ganesh, 2015. "Does non-farm sector employment reduce rural poverty and vulnerability? Evidence from Vietnam and India," Journal of Asian Economics, Elsevier, vol. 36(C), pages 47-61.
    14. Katsushi Imai & Xiaobing Wang & Woojin Kang, 2010. "Poverty and vulnerability in rural China: effects of taxation," Journal of Chinese Economic and Business Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 8(4), pages 399-425.
    15. Zereyesus, Yacob A. & Embaye, Weldensie T. & Tsiboe, Francis & Amanor-Boadu, Vincent, 2017. "Implications of Non-Farm Work to Vulnerability to Food Poverty-Recent Evidence From Northern Ghana," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 91(C), pages 113-124.
    16. Lucy Scott, 2015. "Raising voice or giving assets? Reducing extreme poverty in an uncertain environment: A case study from Bangladesh," Brooks World Poverty Institute Working Paper Series 21315, BWPI, The University of Manchester.
    17. Katsushi S. Imai & Raghav Gaiha & Woojin Kang & Samuel Annim & Ganesh Thapa, 2012. "Does Risk Matter? A Semi-parametric Model for Educational Choices in the Presence of Uncertainty," The School of Economics Discussion Paper Series 1226, Economics, The University of Manchester.
    18. Md. Faruq Hasan & Katsushi S. Imai & Takahiro Sato, 2012. "Impacts of Agricultural Extension on Crop Productivity, Poverty and Vulnerability: Evidence from Uganda," Discussion Paper Series DP2012-34, Research Institute for Economics & Business Administration, Kobe University, revised Feb 2013.
    19. World Bank, 2012. "Bangladesh - Towards Accelerated, Inclusive and Sustainable Growth : Opportunities and Challenges, Volume 2. Main Report," World Bank Other Operational Studies 12121, The World Bank.
    20. Hardeweg, Bernd & Wagener, Andreas & Waibel, Hermann, 2013. "A distributional approach to comparing vulnerability, applied to rural provinces in Thailand and Vietnam," Journal of Asian Economics, Elsevier, vol. 25(C), pages 53-65.
    21. Manoj K. Pandey, 2013. "Elderly's Health Shocks and Household's Ex-ante Poverty in India," ASARC Working Papers 2013-01, The Australian National University, Australia South Asia Research Centre.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    poverty dynamics vulnerability Bangladesh poverty risk;

    JEL classification:

    • C21 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Single Equation Models; Single Variables - - - Cross-Sectional Models; Spatial Models; Treatment Effect Models
    • C25 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Single Equation Models; Single Variables - - - Discrete Regression and Qualitative Choice Models; Discrete Regressors; Proportions; Probabilities
    • I32 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Welfare, Well-Being, and Poverty - - - Measurement and Analysis of Poverty

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