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How Urbanization Affects Employment and Social Interactions

  • Sato, Yasuhiro

    ()

    (Osaka University)

  • Zenou, Yves

    ()

    (Stockholm University)

We develop a model where the unemployed workers in the city can find a job either directly or through weak or strong ties. We show that, in denser areas, individuals choose to interact with more people and meet more random encounters (weak ties) than in sparsely populated areas. We also demonstrate that, for a low urbanization level, there is a unique steady-state equilibrium where workers do not interact with weak ties, while, for a high level of urbanization, there is a unique steady-state equilibrium with full social interactions. We show that these equilibria are usually not socially efficient when the urban population has an intermediate size because there are too few social interactions compared to the social optimum. Finally, even when social interactions are optimal, we show that there is over-urbanization in equilibrium.

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Paper provided by Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA) in its series IZA Discussion Papers with number 7914.

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Length: 45 pages
Date of creation: Jan 2014
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:iza:izadps:dp7914
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  1. Glaeser, Edward L & Sacerdote, Bruce & Scheinkman, Jose A, 1996. "Crime and Social Interactions," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, MIT Press, vol. 111(2), pages 507-48, May.
  2. Patrick Bayer & Stephen L. Ross, 2004. "Place of Work and Place of Residence: Informal Hiring Networks and Labor Market Outcomes," Econometric Society 2004 North American Summer Meetings 495, Econometric Society.
  3. Helsley, Robert W. & Zenou, Yves, 2011. "Social Networks and Interactions in Cities," IZA Discussion Papers 5506, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  4. Sebastian Grauwin & Florence Goffette-Nagot & Pablo Jensen, 2010. "Dynamic models of residential segregation : an analytical solution," Working Papers 1017, Groupe d'Analyse et de Théorie Economique (GATE), Centre national de la recherche scientifique (CNRS), Université Lyon 2, Ecole Normale Supérieure.
  5. Yves Zenou, 2010. "Search, Migration, and Urban Land Use: The Case of Transportation Policies," CReAM Discussion Paper Series 1027, Centre for Research and Analysis of Migration (CReAM), Department of Economics, University College London.
  6. Wahba, Jackline & Zenou, Yves, 2004. "Density, Social Networks and Job Search Methods: Theory and Application to Egypt," Working Paper Series 629, Research Institute of Industrial Economics.
  7. Brueckner, Jan K. & Largey, Ann G., 2008. "Social interaction and urban sprawl," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 64(1), pages 18-34, July.
  8. Pierre M. Picard & Pascal Mossay, 2010. "On spatial equilibria in a social interaction model," Working Papers. Serie AD 2010-14, Instituto Valenciano de Investigaciones Económicas, S.A. (Ivie).
  9. Calvo-Armengol, Antoni & Verdier, Thierry & Zenou, Yves, 2007. "Strong and weak ties in employment and crime," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 91(1-2), pages 203-233, February.
  10. Patacchini, Eleonora & Zenou, Yves, 2008. "Ethnic Networks and Employment Outcomes," IZA Discussion Papers 3331, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  11. Yamada, Gustavo, 1996. "Urban Informal Employment and Self-Employment in Developing Countries: Theory and Evidence," Economic Development and Cultural Change, University of Chicago Press, vol. 44(2), pages 289-314, January.
  12. Marshall, Alfred, 1890. "The Principles of Economics," History of Economic Thought Books, McMaster University Archive for the History of Economic Thought, number marshall1890.
  13. Jan K. Brueckner & Jacques-FranÁois Thisse & Yves Zenou, 2002. "Local Labor Markets, Job Matching, and Urban Location," International Economic Review, Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania and Osaka University Institute of Social and Economic Research Association, vol. 43(1), pages 155-171, February.
  14. Harris, John R & Todaro, Michael P, 1970. "Migration, Unemployment & Development: A Two-Sector Analysis," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 60(1), pages 126-42, March.
  15. Judith Hellerstein & Melissa McInerney & David Neumark, 2009. "Neighbors and Co-Workers: The Importance of Residential Labor Market Networks," Working Papers 09-01, Center for Economic Studies, U.S. Census Bureau.
  16. Pascal MOSSAY & Pierre PICARD, 2013. "Spatial Segregation and Urban Structure," Discussion papers 13056, Research Institute of Economy, Trade and Industry (RIETI).
  17. Antoni Calvó-Armengol & Matthew O. Jackson, 2004. "The Effects of Social Networks on Employment and Inequality," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 94(3), pages 426-454, June.
  18. Robert W. Helsley & William C. Strange, 2007. "Urban interactions and spatial structure," Journal of Economic Geography, Oxford University Press, vol. 7(2), pages 119-138, March.
  19. Yannis M. Ioannides & Giorgio Topa, 2009. "Neighborhood Effects: Accomplishments and Looking Beyond Them," Discussion Papers Series, Department of Economics, Tufts University 0736, Department of Economics, Tufts University.
  20. Yannis M. Ioannides & Linda Datcher Loury, 2004. "Job Information Networks, Neighborhood Effects, and Inequality," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 42(4), pages 1056-1093, December.
  21. Topa, Giorgio, 2001. "Social Interactions, Local Spillovers and Unemployment," Review of Economic Studies, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 68(2), pages 261-95, April.
  22. George A. Akerlof, 1997. "Social Distance and Social Decisions," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 65(5), pages 1005-1028, September.
  23. Cattell, Vicky, 2001. "Poor people, poor places, and poor health: the mediating role of social networks and social capital," Social Science & Medicine, Elsevier, vol. 52(10), pages 1501-1516, May.
  24. Edward L. Glaeser, 2010. "Introduction to "Agglomeration Economics"," NBER Chapters, in: Agglomeration Economics, pages 1-14 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  25. Yannis M. Ioannides, 2012. "From Neighborhoods to Nations: The Economics of Social Interactions," Economics Books, Princeton University Press, edition 1, volume 1, number 9892.
  26. Zhang, Junfu, 2004. "Residential segregation in an all-integrationist world," Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, Elsevier, vol. 54(4), pages 533-550, August.
  27. Zenou, Yves, 2013. "Spatial versus social mismatch," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 74(C), pages 113-132.
  28. Edward L. Glaeser, 2010. "Agglomeration Economics," NBER Books, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc, number glae08-1, May.
  29. Maloney, William F, 1999. "Does Informality Imply Segmentation in Urban Labor Markets? Evidence from Sectoral Transitions in Mexico," World Bank Economic Review, World Bank Group, vol. 13(2), pages 275-302, May.
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