Work or Retirement? Exit Routes for Norwegian Elderly
In this paper we analyze early retirement pathways for Norwegian male and female workers. We apply a multinomial logit model to a data set covering more than 10 500 employees, ages 56-61, in 1989. The aim is to analyze the transition to different destinations, i.e. disability pension, unemployment benefits, out of the labour force, in the period from 1989 till 1995. Both family characteristics, expected income in different end-states, and push factors, such as industry attachment and local unemployment, are important for the early retirement process. Our findings also indicate that there are several gender differences. The explanatory variables have different effects on the different exit routes for males as well as for females. We therefore reject the hypothesis that disability and unemployment are exchangeable pathways into early retirement.
|Date of creation:||Feb 1999|
|Date of revision:|
|Publication status:||published in: Applied Economics, 2000, 32(14), 1865-1876|
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References listed on IDEAS
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- Haveman, Robert & Wolfe, Barbara & Warlick, Jennifer, 1988. "Labor market behavior of older men : Estimates from a Trichotomous choice model," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 36(2), pages 153-175, July.
- Regina Riphahn, 1997. "Disability retirement and unemployment - substitute pathways for labour force exit? An empirical test for the case of Germany," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 29(5), pages 551-561.
- Michael J. Boskin & Michael D. Hurd, 1977.
"The Effect of Social Security on Early Retirement,"
NBER Working Papers
0204, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Ruhm, Christopher J, 1990. "Bridge Jobs and Partial Retirement," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 8(4), pages 482-501, October.
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