IDEAS home Printed from
   My bibliography  Save this paper

A Rapid Road to Employment? The Impacts of a Bus Rapid Transit System in Lima


  • Scholl, Lynn

    (Inter-American Development Bank)

  • Martinez, Daniel

    (Inter-American Development Bank)

  • Mitnik, Oscar A.

    (Inter-American Development Bank)

  • Oviedo, Daniel

    (University College London)

  • Yanez-Pagans, Patricia

    (IDB Invest)


Despite the growing interest in and proliferation of Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) systems around the world, their causal impacts on labor market outcomes remain unexplored. Reduced travel times for those who live near BRT stations or near feeder lines, may increase access to a wider array of job opportunities, potentially leading to increased rates of employment, access to higher quality (or formal) jobs, and increased labor hours and earnings. This paper assesses the effects of the Metropolitano, the BRT system in Lima (Peru), on individual-level job market outcomes. We rely on a difference-in-differences empirical strategy, based on comparing individuals who live close to the BRT system with a comparison group that lives farther from the system, before and after the system started to operate. We find large impacts on employment, hours worked and labor earnings for those individuals close to the BRT stations, but not for those who live close to the feeder lines. Despite the potential to connect poor populations, we find no evidence of impacts for populations living in lower income areas.

Suggested Citation

  • Scholl, Lynn & Martinez, Daniel & Mitnik, Oscar A. & Oviedo, Daniel & Yanez-Pagans, Patricia, 2018. "A Rapid Road to Employment? The Impacts of a Bus Rapid Transit System in Lima," IZA Discussion Papers 12019, Institute of Labor Economics (IZA).
  • Handle: RePEc:iza:izadps:dp12019

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL:
    Download Restriction: no

    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Delmelle, Elizabeth Cahill & Casas, Irene, 2012. "Evaluating the spatial equity of bus rapid transit-based accessibility patterns in a developing country: The case of Cali, Colombia," Transport Policy, Elsevier, vol. 20(C), pages 36-46.
    2. Justin Tyndall, 2017. "Waiting for the R train: Public transportation and employment," Urban Studies, Urban Studies Journal Limited, vol. 54(2), pages 520-537, February.
    3. Ghebreegziabiher Debrezion & Eric Pels & Piet Rietveld, 2007. "The Impact of Railway Stations on Residential and Commercial Property Value: A Meta-analysis," The Journal of Real Estate Finance and Economics, Springer, vol. 35(2), pages 161-180, August.
    4. Harry J. Holzer & John M. Quigley & Steven Raphael, 2003. "Public transit and the spatial distribution of minority employment: Evidence from a natural experiment," Journal of Policy Analysis and Management, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 22(3), pages 415-441.
    5. Church, A. & Frost, M. & Sullivan, K., 2000. "Transport and social exclusion in London," Transport Policy, Elsevier, vol. 7(3), pages 195-205, July.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)


    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.

    Cited by:

    1. Daniel Oviedo & Lynn Scholl & Marco Innao & Lauramaria Pedraza, 2019. "Do Bus Rapid Transit Systems Improve Accessibility to Job Opportunities for the Poor? The Case of Lima, Peru," Sustainability, MDPI, vol. 11(10), pages 1-24, May.

    Most related items

    These are the items that most often cite the same works as this one and are cited by the same works as this one.
    1. Scholl, Lynn & Martínez, Daniel & Mitnik, Oscar A. & Oviedo, Daniel & Yáñez-Pagans, Patricia, 2019. "A Rapid Road to Employment?: The Impacts of a Bus Rapid Transit System in Lima," IDB Publications (Working Papers) 9452, Inter-American Development Bank.
    2. Yanez-Pagans, Patricia & Martinez, Daniel & Mitnik, Oscar A. & Scholl, Lynn & Vazquez, Antonia, 2018. "Urban Transport Systems in Latin America and the Caribbean: Challenges and Lessons Learned," IZA Discussion Papers 11812, Institute of Labor Economics (IZA).
    3. Patricia Yañez-Pagans & Daniel Martinez & Oscar A. Mitnik & Lynn Scholl & Antonia Vazquez, 2019. "Urban transport systems in Latin America and the Caribbean: lessons and challenges," Latin American Economic Review, Springer;Centro de Investigaciòn y Docencia Económica (CIDE), vol. 28(1), pages 1-25, December.
    4. Abu-Qarn, Aamer & Lichtman-Sadot, Shirlee, 2019. "Connecting Disadvantaged Communities to Work and Higher Education Opportunities: Evidence from Public Transportation Penetration to Arab Towns in Israel," IZA Discussion Papers 12824, Institute of Labor Economics (IZA).
    5. Pasha, Obed & Wyczalkowski, Chris & Sohrabian, Dro & Lendel, Iryna, 2020. "Transit effects on poverty, employment, and rent in Cuyahoga County, Ohio," Transport Policy, Elsevier, vol. 88(C), pages 33-41.
    6. Rui Xiao & Guofeng Wang & Meng Wang, 2018. "Transportation Disadvantage and Neighborhood Sociodemographics: A Composite Indicator Approach to Examining Social Inequalities," Social Indicators Research: An International and Interdisciplinary Journal for Quality-of-Life Measurement, Springer, vol. 137(1), pages 29-43, May.
    7. Denis Anne & Julie Le Gallo & Yannick L’Horty, 2020. "Faciliter la mobilité quotidienne des jeunes éloignés de l’emploi : une évaluation expérimentale," Revue d'économie politique, Dalloz, vol. 130(4), pages 519-544.
    8. Sylvie Fol & Gabriel Dupuy & Olivier Coutard, 2007. "Transport Policy and the Car Divide in the UK, the US and France: Beyond the Environmental Debate," International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 31(4), pages 802-818, December.
    9. Costa, Cayo & Ha, Jaehyun & Lee, Sugie, 2021. "Spatial disparity of income-weighted accessibility in Brazilian Cities: Application of a Google Maps API," Journal of Transport Geography, Elsevier, vol. 90(C).
    10. Adeel, Muhammad & Yeh, Anthony Gar-On & Zhang, Feng, 2016. "Transportation disadvantage and activity participation in the cities of Rawalpindi and Islamabad, Pakistan," Transport Policy, Elsevier, vol. 47(C), pages 1-12.
    11. Cascetta, Ennio & Cartenì, Armando & Henke, Ilaria & Pagliara, Francesca, 2020. "Economic growth, transport accessibility and regional equity impacts of high-speed railways in Italy: ten years ex post evaluation and future perspectives," Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Elsevier, vol. 139(C), pages 412-428.
    12. Johnson, Daniel & Ercolani, Marco & Mackie, Peter, 2017. "Econometric analysis of the link between public transport accessibility and employment," Transport Policy, Elsevier, vol. 60(C), pages 1-9.
    13. Wang, Chih-Hao & Chen, Na, 2015. "A GIS-based spatial statistical approach to modeling job accessibility by transportation mode: case study of Columbus, Ohio," Journal of Transport Geography, Elsevier, vol. 45(C), pages 1-11.
    14. Hamidi, Zahra & Camporeale, Rosalia & Caggiani, Leonardo, 2019. "Inequalities in access to bike-and-ride opportunities: Findings for the city of Malmö," Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Elsevier, vol. 130(C), pages 673-688.
    15. Chia, Jason & Lee, Jinwoo (Brian), 2020. "Extending public transit accessibility models to recognise transfer location," Journal of Transport Geography, Elsevier, vol. 82(C).
    16. Casas, Irene & Delmelle, Elizabeth C., 2014. "Identifying dimensions of exclusion from a BRT system in a developing country: a content analysis approach," Journal of Transport Geography, Elsevier, vol. 39(C), pages 228-237.
    17. Arnon Barak, 2019. "The Effect of Public Transit on Employment in Israel's Arab Society," Bank of Israel Working Papers 2019.03, Bank of Israel.
    18. Martinez, Sebastian & Sanchez, Raul & Yañez, Patricia, 2018. "Getting a Lift: The Impact of Aerial Cable Cars in La Paz, Bolivia," IDB Publications (Working Papers) 36, Inter-American Development Bank.
    19. Muhammad Adeel & Anthony Gar-On Yeh & Feng Zhang, 2016. "Transportation disadvantage and activity participation in the cities of Rawalpindi and Islamabad, Pakistan," LSE Research Online Documents on Economics 65025, London School of Economics and Political Science, LSE Library.
    20. Grisé, Emily & Boisjoly, Geneviève & Maguire, Meadhbh & El-Geneidy, Ahmed, 2019. "Elevating access: Comparing accessibility to jobs by public transport for individuals with and without a physical disability," Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Elsevier, vol. 125(C), pages 280-293.

    More about this item


    Bus Rapid Transit; employment; impact evaluation;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • J01 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - General - - - Labor Economics: General
    • J21 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demand and Supply of Labor - - - Labor Force and Employment, Size, and Structure
    • O12 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Development - - - Microeconomic Analyses of Economic Development
    • R40 - Urban, Rural, Regional, Real Estate, and Transportation Economics - - Transportation Economics - - - General

    NEP fields

    This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:


    Access and download statistics


    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:iza:izadps:dp12019. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: . General contact details of provider: .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a bibliographic reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: Holger Hinte (email available below). General contact details of provider: .

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.