Moving from trip-based to activity-based measures of accessibility
This paper studies the properties and performance of a new measure of accessibility, called the activity-based accessibility (ABA) measure, and compares it to traditional measures of accessibility, including isochrone, gravity and utility-based measures. The novel aspect of the ABA is that it measures accessibility to all activities in which an individual engages, incorporating constraints such as scheduling, and travel characteristics such as trip chaining. The ABA is generated from the day activity schedule (DAS) model system, an integrated system based on the concept of an activity pattern, which identifies the sequence and tour structure among all the activities and trips taken by an individual during a day. A byproduct is an individual's expected maximum utility over the choices of all available activity patterns, and from this the ABA is derived. The ABA is related to the logsum accessibility measures frequently derived from destination and mode discrete choice models. The key difference is that it is generated not by examining a particular trip, but by examining all trips and activities throughout the day. A case study using data from Portland, Oregon, demonstrates the rich picture of accessibility made available by use of the ABA, and highlights differences between the ABA and more traditional measures of accessibility. The ABA is successful in (a) capturing taste heterogeneity across individuals (not possible with aggregate accessibility measures), (b) combining different types of trips into a unified measure of accessibility (not possible with trip-based measures), (c) reflecting the impact of scheduling and trip chaining on accessibility (not possible with trip-based measures), and (d) quantifying differing accessibility impacts on important segments of the population such as unemployed and zero auto households (not possible with aggregate measures, and limited with trip-based measures).
Volume (Year): 40 (2006)
Issue (Month): 2 (February)
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