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What a Difference a Y Makes: Female and Male Nascent Entrepreneurs in Germany

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  • Wagner, Joachim

    () (Leuphana University Lüneburg)

Abstract

In western industrialized countries men are on average more than twice as active in entrepreneurship as women. Based on data from a recent representative survey of the adult population in Germany this paper uses an empirical model for the decision to become selfemployed to test for differences between women and men in the ceteris paribus impact of several characteristics and attitudes, taking the rare events nature of becoming an entrepreneur into account. Furthermore, a non-parametric approach using Mahalanobisdistance matching of man and woman which are as similar as possible in all characteristics and attitudes but the "small difference" is used to investigate the difference in the propensity to become self-employed by gender. A core finding is that the difference between men and women in both the extent and the effect of considering fear of failure to be a reason not to start one's own business is important for the explanation of the gender gap in entrepreneurship.

Suggested Citation

  • Wagner, Joachim, 2004. "What a Difference a Y Makes: Female and Male Nascent Entrepreneurs in Germany," IZA Discussion Papers 1134, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  • Handle: RePEc:iza:izadps:dp1134
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    Cited by:

    1. Wagner, Joachim, 2004. "Nascent Entrepreneurs," IZA Discussion Papers 1293, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
    2. Wagner, Joachim, 2005. ""Der Noth gehorchend, nicht dem eignen Trieb" – Nascent Necessity and Opportunity Entrepreneurs in Germany: Evidence from the Regional Entrepreneurship Monitor (REM)," IZA Discussion Papers 1608, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
    3. Petra Moog & Uschi Backes-Gellner & Güldem Demirer, 2005. "Arbeitsrechtliche Regulierungen und ihr Einfluss auf Unternehmensgründungen," Working Papers 0052, University of Zurich, Institute for Strategy and Business Economics (ISU), revised Sep 2005.
    4. Tobias Kollmann & Andreas Kuckertz & Christoph Stöckmann & Patrick Krell, 2012. "Die Entrepreneurshipforschung in Deutschland, Österreich und der Schweiz. Eine Resonanzanalyse," ZfKE – Zeitschrift für KMU und Entrepreneurship, Duncker & Humblot, Berlin, vol. 60(1), pages 53-76.
    5. Balsmeier, Benjamin & Delanote, Julie, 2015. "Employment growth heterogeneity under varying intellectual property rights regimes in European transition economies: Young vs. mature innovators," Journal of Comparative Economics, Elsevier, vol. 43(4), pages 1069-1084.
    6. Cacciotti, Gabriella & Hayton, James C. & Mitchell, J. Robert & Giazitzoglu, Andres, 2016. "A reconceptualization of fear of failure in entrepreneurship," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 31(3), pages 302-325.
    7. Joachim Wagner, 2005. "Nascent and infant entrepreneurs in Germany. Evidence from the Regional Entrepreneurship Monitor (REM)," Labor and Demography 0504010, EconWPA.
    8. Christian Hundt & Rolf Sternberg, 2016. "Explaining new firm creation in Europe from a spatial and time perspective: A multilevel analysis based upon data of individuals, regions and countries," Papers in Regional Science, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 95(2), pages 223-257, June.
    9. Backes-Gellner, Uschi & Moog, Petra, 2013. "The disposition to become an entrepreneur and the jacks-of-all-trades in social and human capital," Journal of Behavioral and Experimental Economics (formerly The Journal of Socio-Economics), Elsevier, vol. 47(C), pages 55-72.
    10. repec:enr:rpaper:0003 is not listed on IDEAS

    More about this item

    Keywords

    nascent entrepreneurs; gender differences in entrepreneurship; Germany;

    JEL classification:

    • J23 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demand and Supply of Labor - - - Labor Demand

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