Education and Employment among Muslims in India: An Analysis of Patterns and Trends
After the submission of the Sachar Committee Report, several studies have undertaken data-based analysis of the socioeconomic and educational conditions of Muslims in India. Many researchers, policy makers and, in fact, common Muslims believe that education can be the only mechanism to enhance their socioeconomic status and facilitate entry into better paid jobs. At the same time there are concerns about access to educational facilities and possible discrimination in the formal labour market. The paper reviews the available evidence on the patterns of Muslim participation in education and employment. Comparing the estimates derived from the most recent round of the National Sample Survey for the year 2009-2010 with the earlier years (1999-2000 and 2004-05), an effort is made to assess if these patterns have changed in recent years. A preliminary analysis of the correlates of these patterns suggests that these are quite complex and multi-dimensional. Perceptions about discrimination interact with endowments, opportunities, supply side conditions and attitudes to give rise to different patterns of participation in employment and education. A different set of policy actions may be required to ameliorate these conditions.
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