IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/a/gam/jsusta/v13y2021i5p2671-d509074.html
   My bibliography  Save this article

Time Allocation between Paid and Unpaid Work among Men and Women: An Empirical Study of Indian Villages

Author

Listed:
  • A. Amarender Reddy

    (Indian Council of Agricultural Research-Central Research Institute for Dryland Agriculture, Hyderabad 500059, India)

  • Surabhi Mittal

    (Agricultural Economics Research Association (AERA), New Delhi 110012, India)

  • Namrata Singha Roy

    (Department of Economics, Christ University, Bengaluru 560029, India)

  • Sanghamitra Kanjilal-Bhaduri

    (Department of Economics, University of Algarve, 8005139 Faro, Portugal)

Abstract

The paper examines the time allocation between paid work (wage earning or self-employed work generally termed as employment work) and unpaid (domestic chores/care work generally termed as non-employment work) along with wage rates, imputed earnings, and occupational structure among men and women and according to different social groups to establish the extent to which the rural labour market is discriminated by sex and social group. The major objective of the paper is to show the differential in wage income between men and women in farm and non-farm activities. The paper also shows the division of time between employment and non-employment activities by men and women. The paper uses high-frequency data and applies econometric techniques to know the factors behind time allocation among different activities across gender. The study finds that males spend more hours on employment work and work at a higher wage rate than females. As a result, a vast monetary income gap between men and women is observed, even though women worked more hours if employment and non-employment activities are jointly taken into consideration. Time spent on employment work and non-employment (mainly domestic chores) has been found to vary significantly due to social identity, household wealth, land, income, education, and skill. The segregation of labour market by sex was evident in this study, with men shifting to non-farm occupations with greater monetary returns and continued dependence on women’s farm activities. Enhancing the ownership of land and other assets, encouraging women’s participation particularly among minorities, and improving health are some of the policy recommendations directed from this study to enhance participation in employment work and shifting towards higher wage income employment.

Suggested Citation

  • A. Amarender Reddy & Surabhi Mittal & Namrata Singha Roy & Sanghamitra Kanjilal-Bhaduri, 2021. "Time Allocation between Paid and Unpaid Work among Men and Women: An Empirical Study of Indian Villages," Sustainability, MDPI, vol. 13(5), pages 1-17, March.
  • Handle: RePEc:gam:jsusta:v:13:y:2021:i:5:p:2671-:d:509074
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: https://www.mdpi.com/2071-1050/13/5/2671/pdf
    Download Restriction: no

    File URL: https://www.mdpi.com/2071-1050/13/5/2671/
    Download Restriction: no
    ---><---

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Stephan Klasen, 2019. "What Explains Uneven Female Labor Force Participation Levels and Trends in Developing Countries?," The World Bank Research Observer, World Bank, vol. 34(2), pages 161-197.
    2. James J. Heckman, 1976. "The Common Structure of Statistical Models of Truncation, Sample Selection and Limited Dependent Variables and a Simple Estimator for Such Models," NBER Chapters, in: Annals of Economic and Social Measurement, Volume 5, number 4, pages 475-492, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    3. Namrata Singha Roy, 2020. "Wage Rate: Is this Return to Education or Return to Physical Capability? Evidence from Rural India," The Indian Journal of Labour Economics, Springer;The Indian Society of Labour Economics (ISLE), vol. 63(1), pages 99-117, March.
    4. Carta, Francesca & De Philippis, Marta, 2018. "You've come a long way, baby. Husbands' commuting time and family labour supply," Regional Science and Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 69(C), pages 25-37.
    5. Geeta Gandhi Kingdon & Jeemol Unni, 2001. "Education and Women's Labour Market Outcomes in India," Education Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 9(2), pages 173-195.
    6. Gronau, Reuben, 1977. "Leisure, Home Production, and Work-The Theory of the Allocation of Time Revisited," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 85(6), pages 1099-1123, December.
    7. repec:iza:izawol:journl:y:2014:p:87 is not listed on IDEAS
    8. Namrata Singha Roy & Ishita Mukhopadhyay, 2019. "Emerging Challenges of Rural Labour Market: Insights from Indian Villages," Arthaniti: Journal of Economic Theory and Practice, , vol. 18(1), pages 86-103, June.
    9. Basant, Rakesh, 2012. "Education and Employment among Muslims in India: An Analysis of Patterns and Trends," IIMA Working Papers WP2012-09-03, Indian Institute of Management Ahmedabad, Research and Publication Department.
    10. Almudena Sevilla-Sanz & Jose Ignacio Gimenez-Nadal & Cristina Fernandez, 2010. "Gender Roles and the Division of Unpaid Work in Spanish Households," Feminist Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 16(4), pages 137-184.
    11. Imai, Katsushi S. & Gaiha, Raghav & Thapa, Ganesh, 2015. "Does non-farm sector employment reduce rural poverty and vulnerability? Evidence from Vietnam and India," Journal of Asian Economics, Elsevier, vol. 36(C), pages 47-61.
    12. Prakash, Nishith, 2008. "Improving the Labor Market Outcomes of Minorities: The Role of Employment Quota," MPRA Paper 11010, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    13. A. Amarender Reddy, 2014. "Rural Labor Markets: insights from Indian villages," Asia-Pacific Development Journal, United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP), vol. 21(1), pages 107-136, June.
    14. Christopher Colclough & Geeta Kingdon & Harry Patrinos, 2010. "The Changing Pattern of Wage Returns to Education and its Implications," Development Policy Review, Overseas Development Institute, vol. 28(6), pages 733-747, November.
    15. Katarina Boye, 2009. "Relatively Different? How do Gender Differences in Well-Being Depend on Paid and Unpaid Work in Europe?," Social Indicators Research: An International and Interdisciplinary Journal for Quality-of-Life Measurement, Springer, vol. 93(3), pages 509-525, September.
    16. Chatterjee,Urmila & Murgai,Rinku & Rama,Martin G., 2015. "Job opportunities along the rural-urban gradation and female labor force participation in India," Policy Research Working Paper Series 7412, The World Bank.
    17. Sher Verick, 2014. "Female labor force participation in developing countries," IZA World of Labor, Institute of Labor Economics (IZA), pages 1-87, September.
    18. Avinash Kumar & Nazia Iqbal Hashmi, 2020. "Labour Market Discrimination in India," The Indian Journal of Labour Economics, Springer;The Indian Society of Labour Economics (ISLE), vol. 63(1), pages 177-188, March.
    19. Harris, John R & Todaro, Michael P, 1970. "Migration, Unemployment & Development: A Two-Sector Analysis," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 60(1), pages 126-142, March.
    20. Farzana Afridi & Taryn Dinkelman & Kanika Mahajan, 2018. "Why are fewer married women joining the work force in rural India? A decomposition analysis over two decades," Journal of Population Economics, Springer;European Society for Population Economics, vol. 31(3), pages 783-818, July.
    21. Mittal, S. & Hariharan, V.K. & Kumar, A., 2018. "Gender Role in agricultural processes and decision making- Empirical Evidence from India," 2018 Conference, July 28-August 2, 2018, Vancouver, British Columbia 277065, International Association of Agricultural Economists.
    22. repec:ilo:ilowps:427404 is not listed on IDEAS
    23. Itishree Pattnaik & Kuntala Lahiri-Dutt & Stewart Lockie & Bill Pritchard, 2018. "The feminization of agriculture or the feminization of agrarian distress? Tracking the trajectory of women in agriculture in India," Journal of the Asia Pacific Economy, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 23(1), pages 138-155, January.
    24. Majumder, Rajarshi, 2011. "Female labour supply in india: proximate determinants," MPRA Paper 43250, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised Oct 2012.
    25. Rania Antonopoulos, 2008. "The Unpaid Care Work–Paid Work Connection," Economics Working Paper Archive wp_541, Levy Economics Institute.
    26. Antonopoulos, Rania., 2009. "The unpaid care work : paid work connection," ILO Working Papers 994274043402676, International Labour Organization.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
    as


    Cited by:

    1. Agnieszka Świgost-Kapocsi, 2021. "200 Years of Feminisation of Professions in Poland—Mechanism of False Windows of Opportunity," Sustainability, MDPI, vol. 13(15), pages 1-17, July.
    2. Bahi, Dhilanveer Teja Singh & Paavola, Jouni, 2023. "Liquid petroleum gas access and consumption expenditure: measuring energy poverty through wellbeing and gender equality in India," LSE Research Online Documents on Economics 120564, London School of Economics and Political Science, LSE Library.
    3. Xin Zhao & Yishuo Jiao & Dan Wu, 2022. "The impact of Internet use on labor wage distortions: Empirical Evidence From China," SAGE Open, , vol. 12(2), pages 21582440221, May.
    4. Clara Mosso & Diego Pons & Cristian Beza-Beza, 2022. "A Long Way toward Climate Smart Agriculture: The Importance of Addressing Gender Inequity in the Agricultural Sector of Guatemala," Land, MDPI, vol. 11(8), pages 1-16, August.
    5. Nitya Mittal & Janina Isabel Steinert & Sebastian Vollmer, 2023. "COVID-19 pandemic, losses of livelihoods and uneven recovery in Pune, India," Palgrave Communications, Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 10(1), pages 1-10, December.

    Most related items

    These are the items that most often cite the same works as this one and are cited by the same works as this one.
    1. Bussolo,Maurizio & Ezebuihe,Jessy Amarachi & Munoz Boudet,Ana Maria & Poupakis,Stavros & Rahman,Tasmia & Sarma,Nayantara, 2022. "Social Norms and Gender Equality : A Descriptive Analysis for South Asia," Policy Research Working Paper Series 10142, The World Bank.
    2. Yasser Razak Hussain & Pranab Mukhopadhyay, 2023. "How Much do Education, Experience, and Social Networks Impact Earnings in India? A Panel Data Analysis Disaggregated by Class, Gender, Caste and Religion," SAGE Open, , vol. 13(4), pages 21582440231, December.
    3. Esha Chatterjee & Reeve D. Vanneman, 2022. "Women's Low Employment Rates in India: Cultural and Structural Explanations," Population and Development Review, The Population Council, Inc., vol. 48(2), pages 445-474, June.
    4. Klasen, Stephan, 2020. "From ‘MeToo’ to Boko Haram: A survey of levels and trends of gender inequality in the world," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 128(C).
    5. Deininger,Klaus W. & Jin,Songqing & Nagarajan,Hari Krishnan & Singh,Sudhir K., 2020. "Political Reservation and Female Labor Force Participation in Rural India," Policy Research Working Paper Series 9350, The World Bank.
    6. Rita K. Almeida & Mariana Viollaz, 2023. "Women in paid employment: a role for public policies and social norms in Guatemala," Oxford Development Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 51(3), pages 252-279, July.
    7. Catherine Sofer & Claire Thibout, 2019. "Women’s investment in career and the household division of labour," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 51(60), pages 6535-6557, December.
    8. Carlos Casacuberta & N鳴or Gandelman, 2012. "Multiple job holding: the artist's labour supply approach," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 44(3), pages 323-337, January.
    9. Mukhopadhyay, Abhiroop & Sahoo, Soham, 2016. "Does access to secondary education affect primary schooling? Evidence from India," Economics of Education Review, Elsevier, vol. 54(C), pages 124-142.
    10. Pushpendra Singh & Falguni Pattanaik, 2020. "Unfolding unpaid domestic work in India: women’s constraints, choices, and career," Palgrave Communications, Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 6(1), pages 1-13, December.
    11. Stuart, Sheila, 2014. "Situation of unpaid work and gender in the Caribbean: The measurement of unpaid work through time-use studies," Studies and Perspectives – ECLAC Subregional Headquarters for The Caribbean 36619, Naciones Unidas Comisión Económica para América Latina y el Caribe (CEPAL).
    12. Elisabeth Cudeville & Martine Gross & Catherine Sofer, 2020. "Measuring Gender Norms in Domestic Work: A Comparison between Homosexual and Heterosexual Couples," Post-Print halshs-02468956, HAL.
    13. Benjamín Villena-Rodán & Cecilia Ríos-Aguilar, 2011. "Causal Effects of Maternal Time-Investment on Children's Cognitive Outcomes," Documentos de Trabajo 285, Centro de Economía Aplicada, Universidad de Chile.
    14. Vo, Thang T. & Truong, Thiet-Ha, 2023. "Gender division of household workforce in Vietnam: Role of international trade and fertility," Economic Analysis and Policy, Elsevier, vol. 80(C), pages 1696-1718.
    15. Amrita Datta & Tanuka Endow & Balwant Singh Mehta, 2020. "Education, Caste and Women’s Work in India," The Indian Journal of Labour Economics, Springer;The Indian Society of Labour Economics (ISLE), vol. 63(2), pages 387-406, June.
    16. Shiba Shankar Pattayat & Jajati Keshari Parida & Kirtti Ranjan Paltasingh, 2023. "Gender Wage Gap among Rural Non-farm Sector Employees in India: Evidence from Nationally Representative Survey," Review of Development and Change, , vol. 28(1), pages 22-44, June.
    17. Gibson, John & Datt, Gaurav & Murgai, Rinku & Ravallion, Martin, 2017. "For India’s Rural Poor, Growing Towns Matter More Than Growing Cities," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 98(C), pages 413-429.
    18. Joachim Merz & Normen Peters, 2019. "Parental Child Care Time, Income and Subjective Well-Being: A Multidimensional Polarization Approach for Germany," SOEPpapers on Multidisciplinary Panel Data Research 1021, DIW Berlin, The German Socio-Economic Panel (SOEP).
    19. Ather Maqsood Ahmed & Ismail Sirageldin, 1994. "Internal Migration, Earnings, and the Importance of Self-selection," The Pakistan Development Review, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, vol. 33(3), pages 211-227.
    20. Deshpande, Ashwini & Kabeer, Naila, 2024. "Norms that matter: Exploring the distribution of women’s work between income generation, expenditure-saving and unpaid domestic responsibilities in India," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 174(C).

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:gam:jsusta:v:13:y:2021:i:5:p:2671-:d:509074. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a bibliographic reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: MDPI Indexing Manager (email available below). General contact details of provider: https://www.mdpi.com .

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service. RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.