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Time Allocation between Paid and Unpaid Work among Men and Women: An Empirical Study of Indian Villages


  • A. Amarender Reddy

    (Indian Council of Agricultural Research-Central Research Institute for Dryland Agriculture, Hyderabad 500059, India)

  • Surabhi Mittal

    (Agricultural Economics Research Association (AERA), New Delhi 110012, India)

  • Namrata Singha Roy

    (Department of Economics, Christ University, Bengaluru 560029, India)

  • Sanghamitra Kanjilal-Bhaduri

    (Department of Economics, University of Algarve, 8005139 Faro, Portugal)


The paper examines the time allocation between paid work (wage earning or self-employed work generally termed as employment work) and unpaid (domestic chores/care work generally termed as non-employment work) along with wage rates, imputed earnings, and occupational structure among men and women and according to different social groups to establish the extent to which the rural labour market is discriminated by sex and social group. The major objective of the paper is to show the differential in wage income between men and women in farm and non-farm activities. The paper also shows the division of time between employment and non-employment activities by men and women. The paper uses high-frequency data and applies econometric techniques to know the factors behind time allocation among different activities across gender. The study finds that males spend more hours on employment work and work at a higher wage rate than females. As a result, a vast monetary income gap between men and women is observed, even though women worked more hours if employment and non-employment activities are jointly taken into consideration. Time spent on employment work and non-employment (mainly domestic chores) has been found to vary significantly due to social identity, household wealth, land, income, education, and skill. The segregation of labour market by sex was evident in this study, with men shifting to non-farm occupations with greater monetary returns and continued dependence on women’s farm activities. Enhancing the ownership of land and other assets, encouraging women’s participation particularly among minorities, and improving health are some of the policy recommendations directed from this study to enhance participation in employment work and shifting towards higher wage income employment.

Suggested Citation

  • A. Amarender Reddy & Surabhi Mittal & Namrata Singha Roy & Sanghamitra Kanjilal-Bhaduri, 2021. "Time Allocation between Paid and Unpaid Work among Men and Women: An Empirical Study of Indian Villages," Sustainability, MDPI, vol. 13(5), pages 1-17, March.
  • Handle: RePEc:gam:jsusta:v:13:y:2021:i:5:p:2671-:d:509074

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