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Traditional Excluding Forces: A Review of the Quantitative Literature on the Economic Situation of Indigenous Peoples, Afro-Descendants, and People Living with Disability


  • Nestor Gandelman
  • Hugo Ñopo


  • Laura Ripani


Unequal income distribution in Latin America and the Caribbean is linked to unequal distributions of (human and physical) assets and differential access to markets and services. These circumstances, and the accompanying social tensions, need to be understood in terms of traditional fragmenting forces; the sectors of the population who experience unfavorable outcomes are also recognized by characteristics such as ethnicity, race, gender and physical disability. In addition to reviewing the general literature on social exclusion, this paper surveys several more specific topics: i) relative deprivation (in land and housing, physical infrastructure, health and income); ii) labor market issues, including access to labor markets in general, as well as informality, segregation and discrimination; iii) the transaction points of political representation, social protection and violence; and iv) areas where analysis remains weak and avenues for further research in the region.

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  • Nestor Gandelman & Hugo Ñopo & Laura Ripani, 2007. "Traditional Excluding Forces: A Review of the Quantitative Literature on the Economic Situation of Indigenous Peoples, Afro-Descendants, and People Living with Disability," Research Department Publications 4545, Inter-American Development Bank, Research Department.
  • Handle: RePEc:idb:wpaper:4545

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Campante, Filipe R. & Crespo, Anna R. V. & Leite, Phillippe G. P. G., 2004. "Desigualdade Salarial entre Raças no Mercado de Trabalho Urbano Brasileiro: Aspectos Regionais," Revista Brasileira de Economia - RBE, EPGE Brazilian School of Economics and Finance - FGV EPGE (Brazil), vol. 58(2), April.
    2. Espinosa, Isolda, 2005. "Las metas del Milenio y la igualdad de género: el caso de Nicaragua," Asuntos de Género 68, Naciones Unidas Comisión Económica para América Latina y el Caribe (CEPAL).
    3. Bello M., Alvaro & Rangel, Marta, 2002. "Equity and exclusion in Latin America and the Caribbean: the case of indigenous and Afro-descendant peoples," Revista CEPAL, Naciones Unidas Comisión Económica para América Latina y el Caribe (CEPAL), April.
    4. Raquel Bernal & Mauricio Cárdenas Santa María, 2005. "Race and ethnic inequality in health and health care in Colombia," Working Papers Series. Documentos de Trabajo 003413, Fedesarrollo.
    5. Matías Busso & Martín Cicowiez & Leonardo Gasparini, 2005. "Ethnicity and the Millennium Development Goals in Latin America and the Caribbean," CEDLAS, Working Papers 0027, CEDLAS, Universidad Nacional de La Plata.
    6. Ximena Clark & Timothy J. Hatton & Jeffrey G. Williamson, 2003. "What Explains Cross-Border Migration in Latin America?," Harvard Institute of Economic Research Working Papers 2012, Harvard - Institute of Economic Research.
    7. Philippe Robert-Demontrond & R. Ringoot, 2004. "Introduction," Post-Print halshs-00081823, HAL.
    8. Marco Castillo & Ragan Petrie, 2007. "Discrimination in the Warplace: Evidence from a Civil War in Peru," Experimental Economics Center Working Paper Series 2007-10, Experimental Economics Center, Andrew Young School of Policy Studies, Georgia State University.
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    Cited by:

    1. Alberto Chong & Hugo Ñopo, 2007. "Discrimination in Latin America: An Elephant in the Room?," Research Department Publications 4536, Inter-American Development Bank, Research Department.
    2. Arlette F. Beltrán & Janice N. Seinfeld, 2011. "Hacia una educación de calidad en el Perú : el heterogéneo impacto de la educación inicial sobre el rendimiento escolar," Working Papers 11-06, Centro de Investigación, Universidad del Pacífico.
    3. Nicolò Barbieri & Lucia Dal Negro & Claudia Ghisetti & Susanna Mancinelli & Alberto Marzucchi & Massimiliano Mazzanti & Simone Tagliapietra & Roberto Zoboli, 2017. "Green-oriented Knowledge Transfers in global markets: technologies, capabilities, institutions," SEEDS Working Papers 1117, SEEDS, Sustainability Environmental Economics and Dynamics Studies, revised Dec 2017.
    4. Alberto Chong & Hugo Ñopo, 2007. "Discriminación en América Latina: Eso que (casi) todos vemos? (Discrimination in Latin America: An Elephant in the Room?)," Research Department Publications 4537, Inter-American Development Bank, Research Department.

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