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Aggregate Employment, Job Polarization and Inequalities: A Transatlantic Perspective

Author

Listed:
  • Julien Albertini
  • Jean Olivier Hairault
  • Francois Langot
  • Thepthida Sopraseuth

Abstract

This paper develops a multi-sectorial search and matching model with endogenous occupational choice in a context of structural change. Our objective is to shed light on the way labor market institutions aect aggregate employment, job polarization and inequalities observed in the US and in European countries. We consider the cases of the US, France and Germany that are representative of alternative institutional settings, having the potential to induce divergent time-paths in the evolution of labor market outcomes during the process of technological transition. In the US and in Germany, we nd employment gains from technological change and job polarization, whereas, in France, the technological change reduces aggregate employment in a context of job polarization. In the US, an half of these employment gains are due to the technological change, and the other half to the changes in the LMI, the contribution of the rise in share of skilled worker being negligible. In France, the change in LMI aects new job opportunities in manual jobs: the reallocation of routine workers towards manual jobs is obstructed for want of job creations of manual services. Hence, without technological change, the fall in French employment would have been cut by 70%. The model also predicts that, without the increase in skilled labor supply, the fall in French employment would have doubled. The improvement in educational attainment dampened the unfavorable consequences of technological change. we show that Germany transforms this structural change in employment gains, only after the labor reforms implemented after the middle of the 90s.

Suggested Citation

  • Julien Albertini & Jean Olivier Hairault & Francois Langot & Thepthida Sopraseuth, 2016. "Aggregate Employment, Job Polarization and Inequalities: A Transatlantic Perspective," SFB 649 Discussion Papers SFB649DP2016-014, Sonderforschungsbereich 649, Humboldt University, Berlin, Germany.
  • Handle: RePEc:hum:wpaper:sfb649dp2016-014
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Aggregate Employment, Job Polarization and Inequalities: A Transatlantic Perspective
      by Christian Zimmermann in NEP-DGE blog on 2016-03-31 17:59:32

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    Cited by:

    1. Julien Albertini & Jean Olivier Hairault & François Langot & Thepthida Sopraseuth, "undated". "Frictions or deadlocks? Job polarization with search and matching frictions," SFB 649 Discussion Papers SFB649DP2015-051, Sonderforschungsbereich 649, Humboldt University, Berlin, Germany.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Search and matching; job polarization; reallocation; labor market institutions;

    JEL classification:

    • E24 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Consumption, Saving, Production, Employment, and Investment - - - Employment; Unemployment; Wages; Intergenerational Income Distribution; Aggregate Human Capital; Aggregate Labor Productivity
    • J62 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Mobility, Unemployment, Vacancies, and Immigrant Workers - - - Job, Occupational and Intergenerational Mobility; Promotion
    • J64 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Mobility, Unemployment, Vacancies, and Immigrant Workers - - - Unemployment: Models, Duration, Incidence, and Job Search
    • O33 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Innovation; Research and Development; Technological Change; Intellectual Property Rights - - - Technological Change: Choices and Consequences; Diffusion Processes

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