Do CEO Demographics Explain Cash Holdings in SMEs?
This study examines the idiosyncratic manager-specific influence on a corporate cash policy. Although traditional economic theories such as trade-off theory and agency theory have already contributed to a deeper understanding of corporate cash policy, we examine whether the integration of Hambrick and Mason’s (1984) upper echelons theory (UET) into these traditional theories provides additional power in explaining corporate cash holdings. We contend that social, psychological and cognitive characteristics of CEOs, proxied by a number of CEO demographics, affect the level of importance that CEOs (and shareholders) attach to the economic arguments provided by the traditional theories, in turn affecting cash policy. We test our hypotheses using a sample of Belgian privately held SMEs. Controlling for a number of operational and financial variables, our results illustrate that CEOs have a considerable influence on corporate cash holdings. In line with most of the hypotheses our principal findings suggest that longer tenured CEOs, older CEOs and CEOs with experience in a single industry are more concerned with the precautionary motive of cash and less concerned with the opportunity cost of cash, giving rise to higher cash levels compared to shorter tenured CEOs, younger CEOs and CEOs with experiences outside the current industry. We thus reveal that cash policy in Belgian privately held SMEs reflects the natural tendencies of CEOs. Since cash policy affects shareholder value, it is important for shareholders to consider the demographics of present or new CEOs, and to understand their associated inclinations concerning cash policy.
|Date of creation:||Dec 2011|
|Date of revision:|
|Contact details of provider:|| Web page: http://research.hubrussel.be|
More information through EDIRC
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Malika Hamadi & Ronald W. Anderson, 2009. "Large powerful shareholders and cash holding," LSF Research Working Paper Series 09-04, Luxembourg School of Finance, University of Luxembourg.
- Chang, Kiyoung & Noorbakhsh, Abbas, 2009. "Does national culture affect international corporate cash holdings?," Journal of Multinational Financial Management, Elsevier, vol. 19(5), pages 323-342, December.
- Danny Miller, 1991. "Stale in the Saddle: CEO Tenure and the Match Between Organization and Environment," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 37(1), pages 34-52, January.
- Gordon, Lawrence A. & Narayanan, V. K., 1984. "Management accounting systems, perceived environmental uncertainty and organization structure: An empirical investigation," Accounting, Organizations and Society, Elsevier, vol. 9(1), pages 33-47, January.
- Miguel A. Ferreira & Antonio S. Vilela, 2004. "Why Do Firms Hold Cash? Evidence from EMU Countries," European Financial Management, European Financial Management Association, vol. 10(2), pages 295-319.
- Mulligan, Casey B, 1997. "Scale Economies, the Value of Time, and the Demand for Money: Longitudinal Evidence from Firms," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 105(5), pages 1061-79, October.
- Bertrand, Marianne & Schoar, Antoinette, 2003.
"Managing With Style: The Effect of Managers on Firm Policies,"
4280-02, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Sloan School of Management.
- Marianne Bertrand & Antoinette Schoar, 2003. "Managing With Style: The Effect Of Managers On Firm Policies," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, MIT Press, vol. 118(4), pages 1169-1208, November.
- Berger, Allen N. & Klapper, Leora F. & Udell, Gregory F., 2001.
"The ability of banks to lend to informationally opaque small businesses,"
Policy Research Working Paper Series
2656, The World Bank.
- Berger, Allen N. & Klapper, Leora F. & Udell, Gregory F., 2001. "The ability of banks to lend to informationally opaque small businesses," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 25(12), pages 2127-2167, December.
- Allen N. Berger & Leora F. Klapper & Gegory F. Udell, 2001. "The ability of banks to lend to informationally opaque small businesses," Proceedings 709, Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago.
- Allen N. Berger & Leora F. Klapper & Gregory F. Udell, 2001. "The ability of banks to lend to informationally opaque small businesses," Finance and Economics Discussion Series 2001-34, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
- Anderson, Ronald W. & Hamadi, Malika, 2009. "Large powerful shareholders and cash holding," CEPR Discussion Papers 7291, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
- Jeffrey A. Wurgler & Malcolm P. Baker, 2001.
"Market Timing and Capital Structure,"
Yale School of Management Working Papers
ysm181, Yale School of Management.
- Kusnadi, Yuanto, 2011. "Do corporate governance mechanisms matter for cash holdings and firm value?," Pacific-Basin Finance Journal, Elsevier, vol. 19(5), pages 554-570, November.
- Kuan, Tsung-Han & Li, Chu-Shiu & Chu, Shin-Herng, 2011. "Cash holdings and corporate governance in family-controlled firms," Journal of Business Research, Elsevier, vol. 64(7), pages 757-764, July.
- Baskin, Jonathan B, 1987. "Corporate Liquidity in Games of Monopoly Power," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 69(2), pages 312-19, May.
- Ozkan, Aydin & Ozkan, Neslihan, 2004. "Corporate cash holdings: An empirical investigation of UK companies," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 28(9), pages 2103-2134, September.
- Toni M. Whited, 1990.
"Debt, liquidity constraints, and corporate investment: evidence from panel data,"
Finance and Economics Discussion Series
114, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
- Whited, Toni M, 1992. " Debt, Liquidity Constraints, and Corporate Investment: Evidence from Panel Data," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 47(4), pages 1425-60, September.
- Steven M. Fazzari & Bruce C. Petersen, 1993. "Working Capital and Fixed Investment: New Evidence on Financing Constraints," RAND Journal of Economics, The RAND Corporation, vol. 24(3), pages 328-342, Autumn.
- Pedro J. García-Teruel & Pedro Martínez-Solano, 2008. "On the Determinants of SME Cash Holdings: Evidence from Spain," Journal of Business Finance & Accounting, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 35(1-2), pages 127-149.
- Stewart C. Myers & Nicholas S. Majluf, 1984. "Corporate Financing and Investment Decisions When Firms Have InformationThat Investors Do Not Have," NBER Working Papers 1396, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Myers, Stewart C. & Majluf, Nicholas S., 1984. "Corporate financing and investment decisions when firms have information that investors do not have," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 13(2), pages 187-221, June.
- Myers, Stewart C. & Majluf, Nicolás S., 1945-, 1984. "Corporate financing and investment decisions when firms have information that investors do not have," Working papers 1523-84., Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Sloan School of Management.
- Ramírez, Andrés & Tadesse, Solomon, 2009. "Corporate cash holdings, uncertainty avoidance, and the multinationality of firms," International Business Review, Elsevier, vol. 18(4), pages 387-403, August.
- Olubunmi Faleye, 2004. "Cash and Corporate Control," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 59(5), pages 2041-2060, October.
- Jarrad Harford, 1999. "Corporate Cash Reserves and Acquisitions," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 54(6), pages 1969-1997, December.
- Tim Opler & Lee Pinkowitz & Rene Stulz & Rohan Williamson, 1997.
"The Determinants and Implications of Corporate Cash Holdings,"
NBER Working Papers
6234, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Opler, Tim & Pinkowitz, Lee & Stulz, Rene & Williamson, Rohan, 1999. "The determinants and implications of corporate cash holdings," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 52(1), pages 3-46, April.
- Ulrike Malmendier & Geoffrey Tate, 2005. "Does Overconfidence Affect Corporate Investment? CEO Overconfidence Measures Revisited," European Financial Management, European Financial Management Association, vol. 11(5), pages 649-659.
- Van Gils, Anita, 2005. "Management and Governance in Dutch SMEs," European Management Journal, Elsevier, vol. 23(5), pages 583-589, October.
- Jensen, Michael C, 1986. "Agency Costs of Free Cash Flow, Corporate Finance, and Takeovers," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 76(2), pages 323-29, May.
- Dittmar, Amy & Mahrt-Smith, Jan & Servaes, Henri, 2003. "International Corporate Governance and Corporate Cash Holdings," Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis, Cambridge University Press, vol. 38(01), pages 111-133, March.
- Ron Anderson & Malika Hamadi, 2009. "Large powerful shareholders and cash holding," FMG Discussion Papers dp631, Financial Markets Group.
- Harford, Jarrad & Mansi, Sattar A. & Maxwell, William F., 2008. "Corporate governance and firm cash holdings in the US," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 87(3), pages 535-555, March.
- Titman, Sheridan & Wessels, Roberto, 1988. " The Determinants of Capital Structure Choice," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 43(1), pages 1-19, March.
- Anderson, Ronald C. & Mansi, Sattar A. & Reeb, David M., 2003. "Founding family ownership and the agency cost of debt," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 68(2), pages 263-285, May.
- Chen, Yenn-Ru & Chuang, Wei-Ting, 2009. "Alignment or entrenchment? Corporate governance and cash holdings in growing firms," Journal of Business Research, Elsevier, vol. 62(11), pages 1200-1206, November.
- Walters, Bruce A. & Kroll, Mark J. & Wright, Peter, 2007. "CEO tenure, boards of directors, and acquisition performance," Journal of Business Research, Elsevier, vol. 60(4), pages 331-338, April.
- Judith Jordan & Julian Lowe & Peter Taylor, 1998. "Strategy and Financial Policy in UK Small Firms," Journal of Business Finance & Accounting, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 25(1&2), pages 1-27.
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:hub:wpecon:201135. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Sabine Janssens)
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.