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Deferred Compensation: Evidence from Employer-Employee Matched Data from Japan


  • Kyoji Fukao
  • Ryo Kambayashi
  • Daiji Kawaguchi
  • Hyeog Ug Kwon
  • Young Gak Kim
  • Izumi Yokoyama


Wage increases, along with job tenure, are one of the most robust empirical regularities found in labor economics. Several theories explain these empirical regularities, and such theories offer sharp empirical predictions for the relation between productivity-tenure and wage-tenure profiles. The human capital model, with cost and benefit sharing between workers and employers, predicts a steeper productivity-tenure profile than wage-tenure profile. The matching quality model predicts that the two profiles will overlap. Theories that involve the information asymmetry between employers and employees predict a steeper wage-tenure profile than productivity-tenure profile to induce workers' effort and enhance efficiency. This paper estimates the productivity-tenure profile and the wage-tenure profile by estimating the plant-level production function and the wage equation using employer-employee matched data from Japan. These estimations offer a comprehensive test for the relative applicability of the two theories on the wage-tenure profile. Estimation results indicate a steeper wage-tenure profile than productivity-tenure profile and point to the relative importance of the deferred wage payment contract.

Suggested Citation

  • Kyoji Fukao & Ryo Kambayashi & Daiji Kawaguchi & Hyeog Ug Kwon & Young Gak Kim & Izumi Yokoyama, 2006. "Deferred Compensation: Evidence from Employer-Employee Matched Data from Japan," Hi-Stat Discussion Paper Series d06-187, Institute of Economic Research, Hitotsubashi University.
  • Handle: RePEc:hst:hstdps:d06-187

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Christian Dustmann & Costas Meghir, 2005. "Wages, Experience and Seniority," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 72(1), pages 77-108.
    2. Olley, G Steven & Pakes, Ariel, 1996. "The Dynamics of Productivity in the Telecommunications Equipment Industry," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 64(6), pages 1263-1297, November.
    3. Dostie, Benoit, 2005. "Job Turnover and the Returns to Seniority," Journal of Business & Economic Statistics, American Statistical Association, vol. 23, pages 192-199, April.
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    Cited by:

    1. Battisti, Michele, 2015. "Present-biased preferences and optimal compensation schedules: a note," MPRA Paper 64818, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    2. KONISHI Yoko & NISHIYAMA Yoshihiko, 2013. "Decomposition of Supply and Demand Shocks in the Production Function using the Current Survey of Production," Discussion papers 13003, Research Institute of Economy, Trade and Industry (RIETI).
    3. Junichi Fujimoto, 2008. "Implications of General and Specific Productivity Growth in a Matching Model," 2008 Meeting Papers 584, Society for Economic Dynamics.
    4. KONISHI Yoko & NISHIMURA Yoshihiko, 2013. "A Note on the Identification of Demand and Supply Shocks in Production: Decomposition of TFP," Discussion papers 13099, Research Institute of Economy, Trade and Industry (RIETI).
    5. Aoyagi, Chie & Ganelli, Giovanni, 2015. "Does revamping Japan's dual labor market matter?," Economic Systems, Elsevier, vol. 39(2), pages 339-357.
    6. Davide Porcellacchia, 2016. "Wage-Price Dynamics and Structural Reforms in Japan," IMF Working Papers 16/20, International Monetary Fund.
    7. Rod Tyers & Jenny Corbett, 2012. "Japan's economic slowdown and its global implications: a review of the economic modelling," Asian-Pacific Economic Literature, Asia Pacific School of Economics and Government, The Australian National University, vol. 26(2), pages 1-28, November.
    8. John S. Heywood & Uwe Jirjahn, 2015. "The German Labor Market for Older Workers in Comparative Perspective," Research Papers in Economics 2015-02, University of Trier, Department of Economics.
    9. KODAMA Naomi & ODAKI Kazuhiko, 2012. "A New Approach to Measuring the Gap between Marginal Productivity and Wages of Workers," Discussion papers 12028, Research Institute of Economy, Trade and Industry (RIETI).
    10. Dong, Xiao-Yuan & Jones, Derek C. & Kato, Takao, 2007. "Earnings-Tenure Profiles: Tests of Agency and Human Capital Theories Using Individual Performance Data," IZA Discussion Papers 3122, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
    11. Kyoji Fukao, 2013. "Explaining Japan's Unproductive Two Decades," Asian Economic Policy Review, Japan Center for Economic Research, vol. 8(2), pages 193-213, December.
    12. John S. Heywood & Uwe Jirjahn, 2016. "The hiring and employment of older workers in Germany: a comparative perspective
      [Die Beschäftigung und Neueinstellung älterer Arbeitnehmer in Deutschland: Eine vergleichende Perspektive]
      ," Journal for Labour Market Research, Springer;Institute for Employment Research/ Institut für Arbeitsmarkt- und Berufsforschung (IAB), vol. 49(4), pages 349-366, December.
    13. International Monetary Fund, 2013. "Japan; Selected Issues," IMF Staff Country Reports 13/254, International Monetary Fund.
    14. Thomas Flochel & Yuki Ikeda & Harry Moroz & Nithin Umapathi, 2014. "Macroeconomic Implications of Aging in East Asia Pacific," World Bank Other Operational Studies 23026, The World Bank.
    15. Chie Aoyagi & Giovanni Ganelli, 2013. "The Path to Higher Growth; Does Revamping Japan’s Dual Labor Market Matter?," IMF Working Papers 13/202, International Monetary Fund.
    16. Kosuke Aoki & Naoko Hara & Maiko Koga, 2017. "Structural Reforms, Innovation and Economic Growth," Bank of Japan Working Paper Series 17-E-2, Bank of Japan.

    More about this item


    Wage; Productivity; Employer-Employee Matched Data; Japan;

    JEL classification:

    • J24 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demand and Supply of Labor - - - Human Capital; Skills; Occupational Choice; Labor Productivity
    • J31 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Wages, Compensation, and Labor Costs - - - Wage Level and Structure; Wage Differentials

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