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Mothers’ income recovery after childbearing

  • Angelov, Nikolay

    ()

    (IFAU - Institute for Evaluation of Labour Market and Education Policy)

  • Karimi, Arizo

    ()

    (IFAU - Institute for Evaluation of Labour Market and Education Policy)

This paper examines the time profile of the effect of fertility on female labour earnings with respect to time since birth. To address endogeneity of fertility to labour income, we use the same-sex instrument (Angrist and Evans, 1998) in a novel way on a panel data set to uncover the time profile of the fertility effect. Our OLS estimates suggest that the largest impact takes place during the child’s first years of life, and then gradually diminishes over the lifecycle, with full recovery of income 15 years after birth. Our IV estimates support this finding, but suggest a faster recovery of earnings, although the estimates are now less precise. We are also able to reproduce this finding with a one-period cross-section and disaggregating the sample by years since third birth to estimate the time profile.

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Paper provided by IFAU - Institute for Evaluation of Labour Market and Education Policy in its series Working Paper Series with number 2012:20.

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Length: 34 pages
Date of creation: 31 Oct 2012
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:hhs:ifauwp:2012_020
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  1. Eric Maurin & Julie Moschion, 2006. "The social multiplier and labour market participation of mothers," Université Paris1 Panthéon-Sorbonne (Post-Print and Working Papers) halshs-00117042, HAL.
  2. Joyce P. Jacobsen & James Wishart Pearce III & Joshua L. Rosenbloom, 1999. "The Effects of Childbearing on Married Women's Labor Supply and Earnings: Using Twin Births as a Natural Experiment," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 34(3), pages 449-474.
  3. Cruces, Guillermo & Galiani, Sebastian, 2007. "Fertility and female labor supply in Latin America: New causal evidence," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 14(3), pages 565-573, June.
  4. Concetta Rondinelli & Roberta Zizza, 2010. "(Non)persistent effects of fertility on female labour supply," Temi di discussione (Economic working papers) 783, Bank of Italy, Economic Research and International Relations Area.
  5. Browning, Martin, 1992. "Children and Household Economic Behavior," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 30(3), pages 1434-75, September.
  6. Reuben Gronau, 1982. "Sex-Related Wage Differentials and Women's Interrupted Labor Careers--The Chicken or the Egg," NBER Working Papers 1002, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  7. Angrist, Joshua D & Evans, William N, 1998. "Children and Their Parents' Labor Supply: Evidence from Exogenous Variation in Family Size," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 88(3), pages 450-77, June.
  8. Bronars, Stephen G & Grogger, Jeff, 1994. "The Economic Consequences of Unwed Motherhood: Using Twin Births as a Natural Experiment," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 84(5), pages 1141-56, December.
  9. Joshua D. Angrist & Guido W. Imbens, 1995. "Identification and Estimation of Local Average Treatment Effects," NBER Technical Working Papers 0118, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  10. James P. Vere, 2011. "Fertility and parents' labour supply: new evidence from US census data," Oxford Economic Papers, Oxford University Press, vol. 63(2), pages 211-231, April.
  11. Kenneth I. Wolpin & Mark R. Rosenzweig, 2000. "Natural "Natural Experiments" in Economics," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 38(4), pages 827-874, December.
  12. Fuchs, Victor R, 1989. "Women's Quest for Economic Equality," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 3(1), pages 25-41, Winter.
  13. Huber, Martin, 2012. "Statistical verification of a natural "natural experiment": Tests and sensitivity checks for the sibling sex ratio instrument," Economics Working Paper Series 1219, University of St. Gallen, School of Economics and Political Science.
  14. Goldin, Claudia & Polachek, Solomon, 1987. "Residual Differences by Sex: Perspectives on the Gender Gap in Earnings," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 77(2), pages 143-51, May.
  15. repec:ese:iserwp:2001-19 is not listed on IDEAS
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