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Effets des Chocs de Produits de Base sur la Mobilisation des Recettes Publiques dans les Pays d'Afrique Sub-saharienne

  • Souleymane DIARRA

    (CERDI - Centre d'études et de recherches sur le developpement international - CNRS : UMR6587 - Université d'Auvergne - Clermont-Ferrand I)

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    Les chocs de produits de base ont fait l'objet de nombreuses études scientifiques. Les analyses se sont plutôt concentrées sur l'effet des chocs sur : la croissance économique, les dépenses publiques, le niveau de la pauvreté des ménages, etc. Cet article donne une autre dimension à l'analyse de l'effet des chocs en s'intéressant à la mobilisation des recettes publiques dans les pays d'Afrique sub-saharienne. Nous avons d'abord identifié et créé des variables muettes "booms" et "busts". Le test économétrique qui en suit montre un effet significatif et négatif des chocs négatifs sur le taux de prélèvement public et un effet non significatif des chocs positifs. Ces résultats s'expliquent par la baisse de l'effort de mobilisation des recettes publiques durant les périodes de "booms" et l'incapacité des pays d'Afrique sub-saharienne à mobiliser davantage de recettes durant les périodes de "busts". La baisse de l'effort de mobilisation des recettes durant les périodes de "booms" s'explique par l'effet richesse et par la politique budgétaire optimale de Talvi et Végh (2005). En effet, pendant ces périodes, une erreur d'appréciation de la durée du choc positif peut amener les Etats à réduire volontairement les taux d'imposition ou à pratiquer des politiques fiscales laxistes. En outre, l'apparition des pressions à la dépense durant les chocs positifs rend coûteux les surplus budgétaires et amène les Etats à réduire leur taux d'imposition. L'effet négatif et significatif des chocs négatifs est logique et s'explique par le rétrécissement de l'assiette fiscale et les difficultés de mise en œuvre des politiques de mobilisation fiscale durant les périodes de chocs négatifs pour compenser les pertes de recettes publiques.

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    Date of creation: 10 Jan 2012
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    Handle: RePEc:hal:wpaper:halshs-00658482
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