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Scenarios for trade integration in the Americas

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  • Diao, Xinshen
  • Diaz-Bonilla, Eugenio
  • Robinson, Sherman

Abstract

This paper analyzes two potential trade liberalization scenarios – a Free Trade Area of the Americas (FTAA) and possible links between MERCOSUR and the European Union (EU) – in a world computable general equilibrium (CGE) model. The model also incorporates some macro elements such as a cash- in-advance mechanism and rigidities in wages and exchange rates. The empirical results show that the two alternative regional integration scenarios are good for the participants while have little impact on the non-participants. Both scenarios are net trade creating, as trade creation greatly exceeds trade diversion, and the trade-diversion has relatively minor effects on the affected regions. The gains are larger for the Latin American participants than for their large potential partners – the U.S. and EU. These results are consistent with earlier studies of NAFTA, which also predicted small positive gains for the U.S. and large gains for Mexico. Many countries in Latin America are currently undergoing macroeconomic strains, and growth in the region has slowed. In this environment, external shocks and stabilization and structural adjustment programs are likely to lead to significant swings in trade balances and exchange rates. These issues will have to be considered in acknowledging that it is hard to reap the long-term benefits of trade liberalization in an environment of macroeconomic instability.

Suggested Citation

  • Diao, Xinshen & Diaz-Bonilla, Eugenio & Robinson, Sherman, 2002. "Scenarios for trade integration in the Americas," TMD discussion papers 90, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).
  • Handle: RePEc:fpr:tmddps:90
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Lewis, Jeffrey D. & Robinson, Sherman & Wang, Zhi, 1995. "Beyond the Uruguay Round: The implications of an Asian free trade area," China Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 6(1), pages 35-90.
    2. Robinson, Sherman, 1991. "Macroeconomics, financial variables, and computable general equilibrium models," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 19(11), pages 1509-1525, November.
    3. Hinojosa-Ojeda, Raul A. & Robinson, Sherman & Lewis, Jeffrey D., 1995. "Regional integration options for Central America and the Caribbean after NAFTA," The North American Journal of Economics and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 6(2), pages 121-148.
    4. Robinson, Sherman & Thierfelder, Karen, 2002. "Trade liberalisation and regional integration: the search for large numbers," Australian Journal of Agricultural and Resource Economics, Australian Agricultural and Resource Economics Society, vol. 46(4), pages 1-20.
    5. Mary E. Burfisher & Sherman Robinson & Karen Thierfelder, 2001. "The Impact of NAFTA on the United States," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 15(1), pages 125-144, Winter.
    6. Diaz-Bonilla, Eugenio & Thomas, Marcelle & Robinson, Sherman & Cattaneo, Andrea, 2000. "Food security and trade negotiations in the World Trade Organization," TMD discussion papers 59, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).
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    Cited by:

    1. Timini, Jacopo & Viani, Francesca, 2022. "A highway across the Atlantic? Trade and welfare effects of the EU-Mercosur agreement," International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 169(C), pages 291-308.
    2. Ludena, Carlos E. & Wong, Sara, 2006. "Domestic Support Policies for Agriculture in Ecuador and the U.S.-Andean Countries Free Trade Agreement: An Applied General Equilibrium Assessment," 2006 Annual meeting, July 23-26, Long Beach, CA 21349, American Agricultural Economics Association (New Name 2008: Agricultural and Applied Economics Association).
    3. Jacopo Timini & Francesca Viani, 2020. "The EU-MERCOSUR free trade agreement: main features and economic impact," Economic Bulletin, Banco de España, issue 1/2020, pages 1-12.
    4. Arguello C., Ricardo & Valenzuela, Ernesto, 2006. "Market access in the Western Hemisphere: implications for the Andean Community," Perfil de Coyuntura Económica, Universidad de Antioquia - CIE, July.
    5. De Miguel, Carlos J. & Durán Lima, José Elías & Schuschny, Andrés Ricardo, 2007. "Trade agreements by Colombia, Ecuador and Peru with the United States: effects on trade, production and welfare," Revista CEPAL, Naciones Unidas Comisión Económica para América Latina y el Caribe (CEPAL), April.
    6. Jacopo Timini & Francesca Viani, 2020. "El tratado de libre comercio entre la UE y el MERCOSUR: principales elementos e impacto económico," Boletín Económico, Banco de España, issue 1/2020, pages 1-13.
    7. Diao, Xinshen & Diaz-Bonilla, Eugenio & Robinson, Sherman & Orden, David, 2005. "Tell me where it hurts, an' I'll tell you who to call," MTID discussion papers 84, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).
    8. Alexander Schejtman & Julio A. Berdegué, 2006. "El Impacto Social de la Integración Regional en América Latina Rural," IDB Publications (Working Papers) 2327, Inter-American Development Bank.
    9. Morley, Samuel & Piñeiro, Valeria, 2004. "The effect of WTO and FTAA on agriculture and the rural sector in Latin America," DSGD discussion papers 3, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).
    10. Teteryatnikova, Mariya, 2008. "R&D in the network of international trade: Multilateral versus regional trade agreements," WTO Staff Working Papers ERSD-2009-03, World Trade Organization (WTO), Economic Research and Statistics Division.
    11. Alexander Schejtman & Julio A. Berdegué, 2006. "El Impacto Social de la Integración Regional en América Latina Rural," IDB Publications (Working Papers) 9125, Inter-American Development Bank.
    12. Turner, James A. & Buongiorno, Joseph & Zhu, Shushuai, 2005. "Effects of the Free Trade Area of the Americas on Forest Resources," Agricultural and Resource Economics Review, Northeastern Agricultural and Resource Economics Association, vol. 34(1), pages 1-15, April.
    13. Philippidis, G. & Resano, H. & Sanjuán, A.I., 2014. "Shifting Armington trade preferences: A re-examination of the Mercosur–EU negotiations," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 40(C), pages 21-32.
    14. Pavel Neumann, 2008. "Fragmentation versus Unity of the World Economy [Fragmentace versus jednota světové ekonomiky]," Acta Oeconomica Pragensia, Prague University of Economics and Business, vol. 2008(2), pages 70-89.

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    More about this item

    Keywords

    Trade liberalization. ; Free trade America. ; European Union countries Commercial policy. ; Equilibrium (Economics) Models. ; Latin America Economic conditions. ; TMD ;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • C5 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Econometric Modeling
    • E1 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - General Aggregative Models
    • F1 - International Economics - - Trade

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