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How do programs work to improve child nutrition?: Program impact pathways of three nongovernmental organization intervention projects in the Peruvian highlands


  • Kim, Sunny S.
  • Habicht, Jean-Pierre
  • Menon, Purnima
  • Stoltzfus, Rebecca J.


This paper examines the program logic of three nongovernmental, community-based programs with different intervention models to reduce childhood stunting. Two programs, Child Nutrition Program (PNI) and Good Start, focused directly on education and behavior change among caregivers, or the short routes to achieve impact, while one program, Sustainable Networks for Food Security (REDESA), focused on upstream factors, such as improving local governance and coordination, improving water and sanitation, and increasing family incomes, or the long routes to achieve impact. We compared the logic of each program as it was explicitly documented to the logic as perceived by the implementers. We elucidated the program impact pathways (PIPs) of key activities by actors at different operational levels in each program to identify congruencies and gaps in the perceptions of causal mechanisms between program activities and their intended outcomes, and analyzed them with the simple program models and logical frameworks to highlight the methodology and utility of PIPs. In a desire to move beyond static input-out models of the three programs, we designed and conducted data collection activities (document review, semi-structured interviews, and observations) with the intention of gaining insights about those aspects of the program that brought causal mechanisms of a given program into clearer focus. We propose that different methods for eliciting PIPs may be necessary at different operational levels. The interview method elicited more complete responses among those who are familiar with programmatic concepts, whereas actors at the local operational level provided sparse and fragmentary responses, even when simple, common language was used during the interviews. Group participatory processes, using visual aids, may be more effective for mapping the perceptions of those who are not accustomed to articulating information about programs. To reduce the length and frequency of interviews with program actors, initial PIPs could also be constructed from program documents, then discussed and revised iteratively with program actors. Although program logic models and the logical frameworks provide a succinct overview of the program (for communication, strategic planning, and management), we found that PIPs provide a better representation of the causal connections between program activities and results, particularly when both upstream and direct intervention activities were part of the same program. PIPs provide a visual tool for tracking how activities were perceived to work and make an impact, bringing into focus the different pathways of the activities and influences along the way. Beyond the logical sequence of program inputs, outputs, and outcomes, the conceptualization of impact pathways is a useful approach for understanding the causal connections required for impact and for identifying where attention and reinforcements may be required within program operation. The utility of this tool warrants its use not only during final evaluation but also during mid-program monitoring and relevant assessments. National- and regional-level program actors had good understanding of the overarching frameworks and principles of their respective programs as well as the program components and activities. They demonstrated a strong coherence to the program documents, provided similar cohesive responses, and were able to articulate the impact pathways. However, program actors at the national level identified fewer facilitators and barriers along the impact pathways than did the local actors, revealing that the practical dimensions of the impact pathways were not as evident to planners and managers farther from the communities. Although program actors at the local level were more apt to provide practical examples of influencing factors or incidents that occur during implementation, they had difficulty fully articulating their perceived PIPs and provided fragmented views of how the activities linked to their outcomes. Similar patterns were found across the three programs. This finding raises the question of desirability of a common understanding of the goals and pathways by which these outcomes are achieved or the acceptability of diversity of perspectives. It is still unclear whether program effectiveness may be improved through greater congruency in the PIPs. Future research should elucidate how congruency of PIPs among program actors across operational levels could be increased, and whether greater congruency would improve program implementation and effectiveness.

Suggested Citation

  • Kim, Sunny S. & Habicht, Jean-Pierre & Menon, Purnima & Stoltzfus, Rebecca J., 2011. "How do programs work to improve child nutrition?: Program impact pathways of three nongovernmental organization intervention projects in the Peruvian highlands," IFPRI discussion papers 1105, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).
  • Handle: RePEc:fpr:ifprid:1105

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Jef L. Leroy & Marie Ruel & Ellen Verhofstadt, 2009. "The impact of conditional cash transfer programmes on child nutrition: a review of evidence using a programme theory framework," Journal of Development Effectiveness, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 1(2), pages 103-129, June.
    2. N/A, 2009. "On the Recession," Local Economy, London South Bank University, vol. 24(3), pages 253-253, May.
    3. Suneetha Kadiyala & Rahul Rawat & Terry Roopnaraine & Frances Babirye & Robert Ochai, 2009. "Applying a programme theory framework to improve livelihood interventions integrated with HIV care and treatment programmes," Journal of Development Effectiveness, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 1(4), pages 470-491.
    4. Beatrice L. Rogers & Serena Rajabiun & James Levinson & Katherine Tucker, 2002. "Reducing Chronic Malnutrition in Peru: A Proposed National Strategy," Working Papers in Food Policy and Nutrition 02, Friedman School of Nutrition Science and Policy.
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    Cited by:

    1. de Brauw, Alan & Gilligan, Daniel, 2011. "Using the regression discontinuity design with implicit partitions: The impacts of comunidades solidarias rurales on schooling in El Salvador," IFPRI discussion papers 1116, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).
    2. David Laborde & Will Martin & Dominique van der Mensbrugghe, 2017. "Measuring the Impacts of Global Trade Reform with Optimal Aggregators of Distortions," Review of International Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 25(2), pages 403-425, May.
    3. Prasad, Sanjay K. & Pullabhotla, Hemant & Ganesh-Kumar, A., 2011. "Supply and demand for cereals in Nepal, 2010–2030:," IFPRI discussion papers 1120, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).
    4. Krause, Brooke Laura, 2013. "Childhood Malnutrition and Educational Attainment: An Analysis using Oxford's Young Lives Longitudinal Study in Peru," 2013 Annual Meeting, August 4-6, 2013, Washington, D.C. 150598, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association.
    5. Glendenning, Claire J. & Asenso-Okyere, Kwadwo & Babu, Suresh C., 2011. "Evaluation of value-added agricultural advisory services: Case study of agriclinics in Southern India," IFPRI discussion papers 1125, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).
    6. Krause, Brooke Laura, 2012. "Childhood Malnutrition and Educational Attainment: An Analysis using Oxford’s Young Lives Longitudinal Study in Peru," Master's Theses and Plan B Papers 146072, University of Minnesota, Department of Applied Economics.
    7. Cai, Ximing & Yang, Yi-Chen E. & Zhao, Jianshi & Ringler, Claudia, 2011. "Can water allocation in the Yellow River basin be improved?: Insights from a multi-agent system model," IFPRI discussion papers 1117, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).
    8. Zambrano, Patricia & Maldonado, Jorge H. & Mendoza, Sandra L. & Ruiz, Lorena & Fonseca, Luz Amparo & Cardona, Iván, 2011. "Women cotton farmers: Their perceptions and experiences with transgenic varieties: A case study for Colombia," IFPRI discussion papers 1118, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).
    9. Yamauchi, Futoshi & Liu, Yanyan, 2011. "Impacts of an early education intervention on students' learning achievement: Evidence from the Philippines," IFPRI discussion papers 1121, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).


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