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How much asymmetry is there in bond returns and exchange rates?


  • Ippei Fujiwara
  • Lena Mareen Körber
  • Daisuke Nagakura


We measure asymmetries in the distribution of bond returns and exchange rates and test their statistical significance. Asymmetries are sizable when measured by the coefficient of skewness, a measure that is highly affected by outliers. In contrast, robustly measured asymmetries to outliers often disagree in sign or size, implying that much of the asymmetries measured by the coefficient of skewness can be attributed to extreme observations. Asymmetries in many government bonds returns are only statistically significant according to tests based on the coefficient of skewness.> ; On the contrary, only tests based on robust measures indicate statistically significant asymmetries in the exchanges rates of Japanese yen, a major funding currency for carry trades, as well as in New Zealand dollar and Australian dollar, major investing currencies for carry trades. This observation suggests that sources of asymmetry in carry trades and in government bond returns can be fundamentally different.

Suggested Citation

  • Ippei Fujiwara & Lena Mareen Körber & Daisuke Nagakura, 2011. "How much asymmetry is there in bond returns and exchange rates?," Globalization and Monetary Policy Institute Working Paper 93, Federal Reserve Bank of Dallas.
  • Handle: RePEc:fip:feddgw:93

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    Cited by:

    1. Fujiwara, Ippei & Körber, Lena Mareen & Nagakura, Daisuke, 2013. "Asymmetry in government bond returns," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 37(8), pages 3218-3226.
    2. Robertson, D. & Tambakis, D., 2016. "Long-Run Debt Ratios with Fiscal Fatigue," Cambridge Working Papers in Economics 1674, Faculty of Economics, University of Cambridge.
    3. repec:csg:ajrcwp:01 is not listed on IDEAS
    4. Bank for International Settlements, 2011. "Interactions of sovereign debt management with monetary conditions and financial stability," CGFS Papers, Bank for International Settlements, number 42.
    5. Okou, Cedric & Maalaoui Chun, Olfa & Dionne, Georges & Li, Jingyuan, 2016. "Can Higher-Order Risks Explain the Credit Spread Puzzle?," Working Papers 16-1, HEC Montreal, Canada Research Chair in Risk Management.

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